Dreaming of a Lost Empire – or – the Germans are Planning Something

Catholicgauze found a nifty site of old road maps — including some nice German ones


From the 1950s!

And 1970s!

A more serious point: one hears complaints about supposed Japanese “remilitarization,” but Japan wasn’t mapping her lost Empire a generation after she lost it.

View the rest of the travel maps

Conclusion and Bibliography for Example Political Science Literature Review & Research Design

Note: This is part of an example political science literature review and research design. An abstract and table of contents are also available.


Democracy and economic development are vital to states, and geography doubtless is a factor. Regardless of its results, this study should be hopeful in determining how great a factor it is. Whatever the outcome, geographic effects and the cultural aspects they engender should always be considered to be conditioners, not determinants. Writing in 1951, Scalapino looked skeptically on political development for Asia

Nowhere in Asia, including Japan, has democracy yet demonstrated its capacity to survive an develop. In the absense of this demonstration, Communism, among all the authoritarian creeds, has recently shown the greatest dynamism and strength.

We live in a world where Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India are stable democracies, many other states have fledgling democracies, and even the “Communist” republics of China and Vietnam have abandoned the idea of economic communism as a creed of dynamism and strength.

If this study does not show a strong correlation between access to the sea and development, we will be more likely to believe that human ingenuity trumps democracy. But a positive outcome for this study does not consign landlocked states and underdevelopment and autocracy, any more than Scalapino’s observed trends condemned Asia to authoritarianism and communism.


Bartlett, David and Seleny, Anna. “The Political Enforcement of Liberalism: Bargaining, Institutions, and Auto Multinationals in Hungary.” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 2. (Jun., 1998), pp. 319-338. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0020-8833%28199806%2942%3A2%3C319%3ATPEOLB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23

Dahlberg, Kenneth A. “Contextual Analysis: Taking Space, Time, and Place Seriously.” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Sep., 1983), pp. 257-266. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0020-8833%28198309%2927%3A3%3C257%3ACATSTA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R

Duch, Raymond, M. “Economic Chaos and the Fragility of Democratic Transition in Former Communist Regimes.” The Journal of Politics, Vol. 57, No. 1. (Feb., 1995), pp. 121-158. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3816%28199502%2957%3A1%3C121%3AECATFO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5

Enterline, A. J. “Regime Changes, Neighborhoods, and Interstate Conflict, 1816-1992.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 42, No. 6 (Dec., 1998), pp. 804-829. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0027%28199812%2942%3A6%3C804%3ARCNAIC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y

Hausmann, Ricardo. “Prisoners of Geography.” Foreign Policy, No. 122 (Jan., 2001), pp. 44-53. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0015-7228%28200101%2F02%290%3A122%3C44%3APOG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H

Huang, Yasheng. “Why China Will Not Collapse.” Foreign Policy, No. 99. (Summer, 1995), pp. 54-68. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0015-7228%28199522%290%3A99%3C54%3AWCWNC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3

Ishiyama, John T. “Communist Parties in Transition: Structures, Leaders, and Processes of Democratization in Eastern Europe.” Comparative Politics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Jan., 1995), pp. 147-166. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-4159%28199501%2927%3A2%3C147%3ACPITSL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

Janos, Andrew C. “Social Science, Communism, and the Dynamics of Political Change.” World Politics, Vol. 44, No. 1. (Oct., 1991), pp. 81-112. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-8871%28199110%2944%3A1%3C81%3ASSCATD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V

Jennings, M. Kent. “Political Participation in the Chinese Countryside.” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 91, No. 2. (Jun., 1997), pp. 361-372. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28199706%2991%3A2%3C361%3APPITCC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M

King, Charles. “Beyond Bosnia: Contextualizing the Politics of Southeastern Europe.” PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 30, No. 3. (Sep., 1997), pp. 507-510. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1049-0965%28199709%2930%3A3%3C507%3ABBCTPO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N

Lewthwaite, Gordon R. “Environmentalism and Determinism: A Search for Clarification.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 56, No. 1 (Mar., 1966), pp. 1-23. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-5608%28196603%2956%3A1%3C1%3AEADASF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3

Liu, Alex. “Index Correlation, Measurement Reliability and Biased Estimation.” R M Application Papers. (Downloaded 13 December 2005). Stable URL: http://www.researchmethods.org/democracy-indicators.pdf.

Madison, James. “Federalist No. 10: “The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection.” New York Daily Advertiser, (November 22, 1787). Stable URL: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=10&page=transcript

Menon, Rajan. “In the Shadow of the Bear: Security in Post-Soviet Central Asia.” International Security, Vol. 20, No. 1. (Summer, 1995), pp. 149-181. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0162-2889%28199522%2920%3A1%3C149%3AITSOTB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I

Midlarsky, Manu I. “Environmental Influences on Democracy: Aridity, Warfare, and a Reversal of the Causal Arrow.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Jun., 1995), pp. 224-262. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0027%28199506%2939%3A2%3C224%3AEIODAW%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2

Mishler, William and Rose, Richard. “Support for Parliaments and Regimes in the Transition toward Democracy in Eastern Europe.” Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 5-32. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0362-9805%28199402%2919%3A1%3C5%3ASFPARI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J

Powers, Denise V. and Cox, James H. “Echoes from the Past: The Relationship between Satisfaction with Economic Reforms and Voting Behavior in Poland.” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 91, No. 3. (Sep., 1997), pp. 617-633. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28199709%2991%3A3%3C617%3AEFTPTR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z

Scalapino, Robert A. “Democracy in Asia: Past and Future. Far Eastern Survey.” Vol. 20, No. 6. (Mar. 21, 1951), pp. 53-57. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0362-8949%2819510321%2920%3A6%3C53%3ADIAPAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

Sprout, Harold. “Geopolitical Hypotheses in Technological Perspective. World Politics.” Vol. 15, No. 2 (Jan., 1963), pp. 187-212. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-8871%28196301%2915%3A2%3C187%3AGHITP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R

Starr and Most. “A Return Journey: Richardson, “Frontiers” and Wars in the 1946-1965 Era.” Vol. 22, No. 3 (Sept., 1978), pp. 441-467. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0027%28197809%2922%3A3%3C441%3AARJR%22A%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7

Spkyman, Nicholar J. “Geography and Foreign Policy, I.” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Feb., 1938), pp. 28-50. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28193802%2932%3A1%3C28%3AGAFPI%3E2.0.CO%3B2

Teune, Henry. “Local Government and Democratic Political Development.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 540, Local Governance around the World. (Jul., 1995), pp. 11-23. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7162%28199507%29540%3C11%3ALGADPD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V

Williams, Whiting. “Geographic Determinism in Nicaragua.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 132, Some Outstanding Problems of American Foreign Policy (Jul., 1927), pp. 142-145. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7162%28192707%29132%3C142%3AGDIN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P