Identifying learning disabled students have been troublesome (Rechly, 1996; Scruggs & Mastropieri, 2002), as have been identifying learning-disabled adults (Adelman & Vogel, 1993, 227). Learning disabled students appear to be cluster into language-defecit, visual-deficit, reading-deficit, behavioral-deficit, and unknown defecits (Bender & Golearning disableden, 1990).
Teachers judge high-achieving students, with or without learning disabilities, positively while they view low-performing learnig disabled students less favorably than low-performing, non-learning-disabled students (Meltzer, & Katzir-Cohen, Miller, & Roditi, 2001) though this does not negatively effect l-d social confidence more than that for n-learning disableds (Vaughn & Haager, 1994) . Low-performing learning disabled students also face disproportionate social problems (Nowicki, 2003), though generally l-d boys do not have less friends than non-l-d boys (Bear, Juvonen, & McInerney, 1993). Low-performers are also associated with depression and suicide (Bender, Rosenkrans, & Crane, 1999).
Categorization of teacher-l-d interaction is complex but predictable (Cook, 2004). Likewise, perceived preperation of teachers appears to very, with some classes of teacherse feeling prepared (Guay, 1994) and others believing they are skill enough to adjust cirrcula to meet l-d’s needs (Simmons, Kameenui, & Chard, 1998). Interestingly, teacher preference and peer social status appear to be highly correlated (Garrett & Crump, 1980), perhaps as a result of widespread teacher ignorance of the best strategies in educating l-ds (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1994).
Students with l-d may, especially, in writing, have more self-efficacy than they have skill (Klassen, 2002).
Interestingly, a student’s perception of acceptence by peers correlates with depression only for the learning disabled (Heath & Wiener, 1996).
Still, l-ds generally have more classroom behavior problems than nl-d students (Bender & Golearning disableden, 1988). Some of this may be due to the presense of ADHD in many l-d students (Tabassam & Grainger, 2002; Wiener, 1998).
While milearning disabledly learning disabled students tend to be more isolated than average students, generally mixing does occur: prosocial learning disabled students have prosocial peers, while antisocial learning disablede students have antisocial peers (Pearl et al., 1998). This isolation may involve the fact that l-d students perceive themselves to be less skillful than their peers, while most Children have an exagerated sense of their own skills (Scarpati, Malloy, & Fleming, 1996).
Perceptions of students have been judged through questionaires (Conderman, 1995). This reveals that beliefs about learning disabled students change with exposure (Kavale & Reese, 1991)
Asking learning-disabled adults to define learning-disable students has been done before (Reiff, Gerber, & Ginsberg, 1993).
More and more learning-disabled students are attending college (Stage & Milne, 1996) and the transition from dependency to independence, of which college is a part, has recently come into focus (Reiff & deFur, 1992). It is possible that the effect learning disabilities increases as time goes on (Bender & Wall, 1994). Students with learning disabilities looking for their first professional job, especially women, are likely to be more indecivie and have lower aspirations (Rojewski, 1996).
Perhaps a better way to view learning disability is as a risk factor, whose effect depends entirely on its interaction with other factors (Morrison & Cosden, 1997). A somber argument against this, however, is that “no intervention has been designed that eliminates the impact of having a disability” (Hocutt, 1996, 77) — a feat which shoulearning disabled be possible if l-d only acts as an interaction effect.
These findings are combined in exciting research that shows that l-ds in college view themselves as more socially accepted than non-l-ds (Cosden & McNamara, 1997) and display higher levels of resilience (Hall, Spruill, & Webster, 2002). Collegiate l-ds are as smart or smarter than the general population, though, which implies low-functioning l-ds may be selecting themselves out (Hughes & Smith, 1990).
Rojewksi states that students “with learning disabilities shoulearning disabled be prepared to deal with chance events and encounters in a purposeful and proactive manner” (1999, 274). The feasibility of this is problematic, however, as social interaction training seems to be only modestly useful (Forness & Kavale, 1996). Explicit problem-solving strategies were used less by learning disabled students than average students or gifted students (Montague & Applegate, 2000).
The effects of modular cognition is unclear. Learning-disability happens in specific domains, and is not global unless it actually occurs in all of the domains (Lyon, 1996). For instance, students who believe that their learning disability is limited in scope do better than those who believe it is nonchanging and global (Rothman & Cosden, 1996). However, a recognition of internal modularity — ascribing success to “luck, intense hard work, well-developed social skills, and perception” can be described as the “imposter syndrome” and can be viewed negatively (Shessel & Reiff, 1999, 312). Transition programs which focus on specific skills, rather than the more domain-general class of all students with -learning disabled, more adequately address the real need (Phelps & Hanley-Maxwell, 1997; Rojewski, 1992). On a more theoretical matter, than understanding of one’s own disability effects school competence but not global self estteem (Cosden, Elliot, Noble, & Kelemen, 1999) makes sene, as competence relates to practice while esteem relates to language,
Place matters for l-ds. Both state and region effects the school services that l-ds receive (McKenzie, 1991).
Peer teaching (Mastropieri, Scruggs, & Graetz, 2003) and assistance are effective processes for increasing learning comprehension among l-d students (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2001) .
Computerized interaction between Children, both l-d and nl-d, has been studied before (Jellison, 2002).
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