Like my q&d lit review for the ultimatum game, this post is for my own benefit. If you want something actually interesting dealing with learning, read “Nature and Her Consequences” (part of my series on student nature), or Mark of ZenPundit‘s “Horizontal Thinking at Cooperative Commons” (which links to “Remember Lateral Thinking?). Or even check out my older series on learning — Classroom Democracy, Learning Evolved, and Liberal Education.
Identifying learning disabled students have been troublesome (Rechly, 1996; Scruggs & Mastropieri, 2002), as have been identifying learning-disabled adults (Adelman & Vogel, 1993, 227). Learning disabled students appear to be cluster into language-defecit, visual-deficit, reading-deficit, behavioral-deficit, and unknown defecits (Bender & Golearning disableden, 1990).
Teachers judge high-achieving students, with or without learning disabilities, positively while they view low-performing learnig disabled students less favorably than low-performing, non-learning-disabled students (Meltzer, & Katzir-Cohen, Miller, & Roditi, 2001) though this does not negatively effect l-d social confidence more than that for n-learning disableds (Vaughn & Haager, 1994) . Low-performing learning disabled students also face disproportionate social problems (Nowicki, 2003), though generally l-d boys do not have less friends than non-l-d boys (Bear, Juvonen, & McInerney, 1993). Low-performers are also associated with depression and suicide (Bender, Rosenkrans, & Crane, 1999).
Categorization of teacher-l-d interaction is complex but predictable (Cook, 2004). Likewise, perceived preperation of teachers appears to very, with some classes of teacherse feeling prepared (Guay, 1994) and others believing they are skill enough to adjust cirrcula to meet l-d’s needs (Simmons, Kameenui, & Chard, 1998). Interestingly, teacher preference and peer social status appear to be highly correlated (Garrett & Crump, 1980), perhaps as a result of widespread teacher ignorance of the best strategies in educating l-ds (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1994).
Students with l-d may, especially, in writing, have more self-efficacy than they have skill (Klassen, 2002).
Interestingly, a student’s perception of acceptence by peers correlates with depression only for the learning disabled (Heath & Wiener, 1996).
Still, l-ds generally have more classroom behavior problems than nl-d students (Bender & Golearning disableden, 1988). Some of this may be due to the presense of ADHD in many l-d students (Tabassam & Grainger, 2002; Wiener, 1998).
While milearning disabledly learning disabled students tend to be more isolated than average students, generally mixing does occur: prosocial learning disabled students have prosocial peers, while antisocial learning disablede students have antisocial peers (Pearl et al., 1998). This isolation may involve the fact that l-d students perceive themselves to be less skillful than their peers, while most Children have an exagerated sense of their own skills (Scarpati, Malloy, & Fleming, 1996).
Perceptions of students have been judged through questionaires (Conderman, 1995). This reveals that beliefs about learning disabled students change with exposure (Kavale & Reese, 1991)
Asking learning-disabled adults to define learning-disable students has been done before (Reiff, Gerber, & Ginsberg, 1993).
More and more learning-disabled students are attending college (Stage & Milne, 1996) and the transition from dependency to independence, of which college is a part, has recently come into focus (Reiff & deFur, 1992). It is possible that the effect learning disabilities increases as time goes on (Bender & Wall, 1994). Students with learning disabilities looking for their first professional job, especially women, are likely to be more indecivie and have lower aspirations (Rojewski, 1996).
Perhaps a better way to view learning disability is as a risk factor, whose effect depends entirely on its interaction with other factors (Morrison & Cosden, 1997). A somber argument against this, however, is that “no intervention has been designed that eliminates the impact of having a disability” (Hocutt, 1996, 77) — a feat which shoulearning disabled be possible if l-d only acts as an interaction effect.
These findings are combined in exciting research that shows that l-ds in college view themselves as more socially accepted than non-l-ds (Cosden & McNamara, 1997) and display higher levels of resilience (Hall, Spruill, & Webster, 2002). Collegiate l-ds are as smart or smarter than the general population, though, which implies low-functioning l-ds may be selecting themselves out (Hughes & Smith, 1990).
Rojewksi states that students “with learning disabilities shoulearning disabled be prepared to deal with chance events and encounters in a purposeful and proactive manner” (1999, 274). The feasibility of this is problematic, however, as social interaction training seems to be only modestly useful (Forness & Kavale, 1996). Explicit problem-solving strategies were used less by learning disabled students than average students or gifted students (Montague & Applegate, 2000).
The effects of modular cognition is unclear. Learning-disability happens in specific domains, and is not global unless it actually occurs in all of the domains (Lyon, 1996). For instance, students who believe that their learning disability is limited in scope do better than those who believe it is nonchanging and global (Rothman & Cosden, 1996). However, a recognition of internal modularity — ascribing success to “luck, intense hard work, well-developed social skills, and perception” can be described as the “imposter syndrome” and can be viewed negatively (Shessel & Reiff, 1999, 312). Transition programs which focus on specific skills, rather than the more domain-general class of all students with -learning disabled, more adequately address the real need (Phelps & Hanley-Maxwell, 1997; Rojewski, 1992). On a more theoretical matter, than understanding of one’s own disability effects school competence but not global self estteem (Cosden, Elliot, Noble, & Kelemen, 1999) makes sene, as competence relates to practice while esteem relates to language,
Place matters for l-ds. Both state and region effects the school services that l-ds receive (McKenzie, 1991).
Peer teaching (Mastropieri, Scruggs, & Graetz, 2003) and assistance are effective processes for increasing learning comprehension among l-d students (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2001) .
Computerized interaction between Children, both l-d and nl-d, has been studied before (Jellison, 2002).
Adelman, P.B. & Vogel, S.A. (1993). Issues in the Employment of Adults with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 16(3): 219-232.
Bear, G.G., Juvonen, J., & McInerney, F. (1993). Self-Perceptions and Peer Relations of Boys with and Boys without Learning Disabilities in an Integrated Setting: A Longitudinal Study. Learning Disability Quarterly 16(2): 127-136.
Bender, W.N. & Golearning disableden, L.B. (1988). Adaptive Behavior of Learning Disabled and Non-Learning Disabled Children. Learning Disability Quarterly 11(1): 55-61.
Bender, W.N. & Golearning disableden, L.B. (1990). Subtypes of Students with Learning Disabilities as Derived from Cognitive, Academic, Behavioral, and Self-Concept Measures. Learning Disability Quarterly 13(3): 183-194.
Bender, W.N., Rosenkrans, C.B., & Crane, M. (1999). Stress, Depression, and Suicide among Students with Learning Disabilities: Assessing the Risk. Learning Disability Quarterly 22(2): 143-156.
Bender, W.N. & Wall, M.E. (1994). Social-Emotional Development of Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 17(4): 323-341.
Conderman, G. (1995). Social Status of Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Students with Learnign Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 18(1): 13-24.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers’ Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal 104(4): 307-320.
Cosden, M., Elliot, K., Noble, S., & Kelemen, E. (1999). Self-Understanding and Self-Esteem in Children with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 22(4): 279-290.
Cosden, M.A. & McNamara, J. (1997). Self-Concept and Perceived Social Support among College Students with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 20(1): 2-12.
Forness, S.R. & Kavale, K.A. (1996). Treating Social Skill Deficits in Children with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of the Research. Learning Disability Quarterly 19(1): 2-13.
Garrett, M.K. & Crump, W.D. (1980). Peer Acceptance, Teacher Preference, and Self-Appraisal of Social Status among Learning Disabled Students. Learning Disability Quarterly 3(#): 42-48.
Guay, D.M. (1994). Students with Disabilities in the Art Classroom: How Prepared Are We?. Studies in Art Education 36(1): 44-56.
Hall, C.W., Spruill, K.L., & Webster. R. E. (2002). Motivational and Attitudinal Factors in College Students with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 25(2): 79-86.
Heath, N.L. & Wiener, J. (1996). Depression and Nonacademic Self-Perceptions in Children with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 19(1): 34-44.
Hocutt, A.M. (1996). Effectiveness of Special Education: Is Placement the Critical Factor?. The Future of Children 6(1): 77-102.
Hughes, C.A. & Smith, J.O. (1990). Cognitive and Academic Performance of College Students with Learning Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Literature. Learning Disability Quarterly 13(1): 66-79.
Jellison, J.A. (2002). On-Task Participation of Typical Students Close to and Away from Classmates with Disabilities in an Elementary Music Classroom. Journal of Research in Music Education 50(4): 343-355.
Kavale, K.A. & Reese. J.H. (1991). Teacher Beliefs and Perceptions about Learning Disabilities: A Survey of Iowa Practitioners. Learning Disability Quarterly 14(2): 141-160.
Klassen, R. (2002). A Question of Calibration: A Review of the Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 25(2): 88-102.
Lyon, G.R. (1996). Learning Disabilities. The Future of Children 6(1): 54-76.
Mastropieri, M.A. & Scruggs, T.E. (2001). Promoting Inclusion in Secondary Classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly 24(4): 265-274.
Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., & Graetz, J.E. (2003). Reading Comprehension Instruction for Secondary Students: Challenges for Struggling Students and Teachers”>. Learning Disability Quarterly 26(2): 103-116.
McKenzie, R.G. (1991). Content Area Instruction Delivered by Secondary Learning Disabilities Teachers: A National Survey. Learning Disability Quarterly 14(2): 115-122.
Meltzer, L., Katzir-Cohen, T., Miller, L., & Roditi, B. (2001). The Impact of Effort and Strategy Use on Academic Performance: Student and Teacher Perceptions. Learning Disability Quarterly 24(2): 85-98.
Montague, M. & Applegate, B. (2000). Middle School Students’ Perceptions, Persistence, and Performance in Mathematical Problem Solving. Learning Disability Quarterly 23(3): 215-227.
Morrison, G.M. & Cosden, M.A. (1997). Risk, Resilience, and Adjustment of Individuals with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 20(1): 43-60.
Nowicki, E.A. (2003). A Meta-Analysis of the Social Competence of Children with Learning Disabilities Compared to Classmates of Low and Average to High Achievement. Learning Disability Quarterly 26(3): 171-188.
Pearl, R., et al. (1998). The Social Integration of Students with Milearning disabled Disabilities in General Education Classrooms: Peer Group Membership and Peer-Assessed Social Behavior. The Elementary School Journal 99(2): 167-185.
Phelps, L.A. & Hanley-Maxwell, C. (1997). School-to-Work Transitions for Youth with Disabilities: A Review of Outcomes and Practices. Review of Educational Research 67(2): 197-226.
Reiff, H.B. & deFur, S. (1992). Definitions of Learning Disabilities from Adults with Learning Disabilities: The Insiders’ Perspectives. Learning Disability Quarterly 16(2): 114-125.
Reschly, D.J. (1996). Identification and Assessment of Students with Disabilities. The Future of Children 6(1): 40-53.
Rojewski, J.W. (1992). Key Components of Model Transition Services for Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 15(2): 135-150.
Rojewski, J.W. (1996). Occupational Aspirations and Early Career-Choice Patterns of Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 19(2): 99-116.
Rojewski, J.W. (1999). The Role of Chance in the Career Development of Individuals with Learning Disabilities Learning Disability Quarterly 22(4): 257-278.
Rothman, H.R. & Cosden, M. (1995). The Relationship between Self-Perception of a Learning Disability and Achievement, Self-Concept and Social Support. Learning Disability Quarterly 18(3): 203-212.
Scarpati, S., Malloy, T.E., & Fleming, R. (1996). Interpersonal Perception of Skill Efficacy and Behavioral Control of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: A Social Relations Approach. Learning Disability Quarterly 19(1): 15-22.
Scruggs, T.E. & Mastropieri, M.A. (1994). Successful Mainstreaming in Elementary Science Classes: A Qualitative Study of Three Reputational Cases. American Educational Research Journal 31(4): 785-811.
Scruggs, T.E. & Mastropieri, M.A. (2002). On Babies and Bathwater: Addressing the Problems of Identification of Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 25(3): 155-168.
Shessel, I. & Reiff, H.B. (1999). Experiences of Adults with Learning Disabilities: Positive and Negative Impacts and Outcomes. Learning Disability Quarterly 22(4): 305-316.
Simmons, D.C., Kameenui, E.J., & Chard, D.J. (1998). General Education Teachers’ Assumptions about Learning and Students with Learning Disabilities: Design-of-Instruction Analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly 21(1): 6-21.
Stage, F.K. & Milne, N.V. (1996). Invisible Scholars: Students with Learning Disabilities. The Journal of Higher Education 67(4): 426-445.
Tabassam, W., & Grainger, J. (2002). Self-Concept, Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Learning Disability Quarterly 25(2): 141-151.
Vaughn, S. & Haager, D. (1994). Social Competence as a Multifaceted Construct: How Do Students with Learning Disabilities Fare?. Learning Disability Quarterly 17(4): 253-266.
Weiner, J. (1998). The Psychiatric Morbidity Hypothesis: A Response to San Miguel, Forness, and Kavale. Learning Disability Quarterly 21(3): 195-201.