Pack your bags, look to the stars, and prepare to go in search of…
… THE WARY STUDENT.
According to John of Salisbury (via Wikipedia)
“Bernard of Chartres used to say that we are like dwarfs on the shoulders of giants, so that we can see more than they, and things at a greater distance, not by virtue of any sharpness on sight on our part, or any physical distinction, but because we are carried high and raised up by their giant size.”
The same thought was parroted by Niccolo Machiavelli, though perhaps more to please his intended audience:
those who make maps of countries place themselves low down in the plains to study the character of mountains and elevated lands
But regardless of motive, there is truth in this. Science is a collective enterprise, and we would be nowhere without those who have gone before. A list of works cited just in this series is below. A fuller reading list for issues concerning punitive alturism is available in The Wary Guerrilla, Part ?: Bibliography.
Alford, J. & Hibbing, J. (2004) .The Origin of Politics: An Evolutionary Theory of Political Behavior. Perspectives on Politics, 2(4), 707-723.
Alford, J. , & Hibbing, J. (2006a). The Neural Basis of Representative Democracy. Paper presented at the Hendricks Conference on Biology, Evolution, and Political Behavior.
Andreoni, J., Castillo, M. & Petrie, R. (2003). What do bargainers’ preferences look like? Experiments with a convex ultimatum game. The American Economic Review, 93(3), 672-685.
Chi, M.T.H., de Leeuw, N., Chui, M, & LaVancher, C. (1994). Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding. Cognitive Science, 18, 439-477.
de Leeuw, N., & Chi, M.T.H. (2003). Self-explanation: Enriching a situation model or repairing a domain model. Intentional conceptual change. Ed. G. M. Sinatra; P. R. Pintrich Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 347-374.
Dempsey, M.S., PytlikZillig, L.M., & Bruning, R. (2005). Building writing assessment skills using web-based cognitive support features, in Lisa M. PutlikZillig, Mary Bodvarrson, & Roger Bruning, Eds. (pp. 83-106). Technology-based education: Brining researchers and practitioners together. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Dixon, P. (1991). From research the theory to practice: Commentary on Chandler and Sweller. Cognition and Instruction, 8(4), 343-350.
Fulwider, J. & Saferstein, R. (2007). In press.
Goldman, S.R. (1991). On the derivation of instructional applications from cognitive theories: commentary on Chandler and Sweller. Cognition and Instruction, 8(4), 333-342.
Harsanyi, J.C. (1961). On the Rationality Postulates Underlying the Theory of Cooperative Games. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 5(2): 179-196.
Henrich, J., et al. (2005). ‘Economic man’ in cross-cultural perspective: Behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies.. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(6), 795-855.
Hibbing, J. & Alford, J.. (2004). Accepting Authoritative Decisions: Humans as Wary Cooperators. American Journal of Political Science, 48(1), 62-76.
Horn, C.A. PytlikZillig, L.M., Bruning, R., & Kauffman, D.F. (2003). At risk in cyberspace, in Roger Bruning, Christy A. Horn, & Lisa M. PytlikZillig, Eds. (pp. 129-152). Web-based learning: What do we know? Where do we go? Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2000). Incorporating learner experience into the design of multimedia instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 126-136.
Kay, A.C., Wheeler, S.C., Bargh, J.A., & Ross, L. (2004). Material priming: The influence of mundane physical objects on situational construal and competitive behavioral choice. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95(1), 83-96.
Knowles, E.D., Morris, M.W., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (2001). Culture and the process of person perception: Evidence for automaticity among East Asians in correcting for situational influences on behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(10), 1344-1356.
Kurzban, R. (2001). The social psychophysics of cooperation: nonverbal communication in a public goods game. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25(4), 241-259.
Larrick, R.P. & Blount, S. (1997). The claiming effect: Why players are more generous in social dilemmas than in ultimatum games. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(4), 810-825.
Lusk, J.L., & Hudson, D. (2004). Effects of monitor-subject cheap talk on ultimatum game offers. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 54(3), 439-443.
Miller, W. (1937). The picture crutch in reading. Elementary English Review, 14, 263-264.
Minear, M., and Park, D.C. (2004). A lifespan database of adult facial stimuli. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36(4), 630-633.
Moshman, D. (2005). Adolescent Psychological Development (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mwangi, W. & Sweller, J. (1998). Learning to solve compare word problems: The effect of example format and generating self-explanations. Cognition and Instruction, 16(2), 173-199.
Oppewal, H., & Tougareva, E. (1992). A three-person ultimatum game to investigate effects of differences in need, sharing rules and observability on bargaining behaviour. Experimental Economics, 13(2), 203-213.
Paas, F.G.W.C. & van Merrienboer, J.J.G. (1994). Instructional control of cognitive load in the training of complex cognitive tasks. Educational Psychology Review, 6(4), 351-371.
PytlikZillig, L.M., Horn, C.A., & White, M.J. (2003). Teachers, technology, and students at risk, in Roger Bruning, Christy A. Horn, & Lisa M. PytlikZillig, Eds. (pp. 57-78). Web-based learning: What do we know? Where do we go? Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Robert, C. & Carnevale, P.J. (1997). Group choice in ultimatum bargaining. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 72(2), 256-279.
Salden, R.J.C.M., Paas, F., Nroers, N.J., & van Merrienboer, J.J.G. (2004). Mental effort and performance as determinants for the dynamic selection of learning tasks in air traffic control training. Instructional Science, 32, 153-172.
Sherman, S.J. & Sherman, J.W. (1999). Bring the troops back home: Armistice between motivation and cognition. Psychological Inquiry, 10(1), 65-68.
Slonim, R. & Roth, A.E. (1998). Learning in high stakes ultimatum games: An experiment in the Slovak Republic. Econometrica, 66(3), 569-596.
Smith, K. (2006) Representational altruism: The wary cooperator as authoritative decision maker. American Journal of Political Science, 50(4), 1013-1022.
Sonnenschein, S. (1982). The effects of redundant communications on listeners. When more is less. Child Development, 53(3), 717-729
Sweller, J. & Chandler, P. (1991). Evidence for Cognitive Load Theory. Cognition and Instruction, 8(4), 351-362.
Sweller, J. & Chandler, P. (1994). Why some material is difficult to learn. Cognition and Instruction, 12(3), 185-233.
Tuovinen, J.E. & Paas, F. (2004). Exploring multimedimensional approaches to the efficiency of instructional conditions. Instructional Science, 32, 133-152.