Tag Archives: pnm

Redefining the Gap 14, Appendix: National Codes

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

The CSV output file. Boring, I know. But makes it easier to run your own tests if you disagree.


Nation;Brutal;Nasty;Poor;Solitary;Short;IV;OCNCG;CG;G77;G2277;AfroIslam;Nalign;G15Nalign;LDCs;LDCsLLDCs;FreeComNon
Brutal
Nasty
Poor
Solitary
Short
IV
OCNCG
CG
G77
G2277
AfroIslam
Nalign
G15Nalign
LDCs
LLDCsLDCs
FreeComNon

Afghanistan;0.833333333333333;0.25;0.00575539568345324;3.74260418305409e-006;0.210650422479859;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Albania;0.916666666666667;0.666666666666667;0.0647482014388489;0.000319828995244291;0.8805266260562;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;0;1;2;1;2;1
Algeria;1;0.25;0.097841726618705;5.4571350582082e-005;0.798585183729613;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;1;0;1;1
Andorra;1;1;0.339568345323741;0.151605629229859;1;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Angola;0.916666666666667;0.25;0.0402877697841727;0.000315537624467798;0.117901355865592;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Anguilla;1;1;0.102158273381295;0.044825344270446;0.87757909215956;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;
Antigua and Barbuda;1;0.833333333333333;0.152517985611511;0.0474256850595396;0.776969935154254;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;
Argentina;1;0.833333333333333;0.19136690647482;0.0472426232374024;0.854784830025545;calculate IV;1;1;0;1;1;1;2;0;1;1
Armenia;1;0.416666666666667;0.0705035971223022;0.00454856035180742;0.770681862841423;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Australia;0.916666666666667;1;0.454676258992806;0.403904100952972;0.940852819807428;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Austria;1;1;0.467625899280576;0.33839763206548;0.912752996659461;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Azerbaijan;0.916666666666667;0.25;0.0618705035971223;8.8364170996729e-005;0.613676557280409;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;0;1;2;1;2;1
Bahamas, The;1;1;0.266187050359712;0.00180746265924107;0.648064452741206;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;
Bahrain;1;0.333333333333333;0.289208633093525;0.00427346669414268;0.821968952642955;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Bangladesh;1;0.5;0.0244604316546763;2.7606161053281e-006;0.586362743171546;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Barbados;1;1;0.244604316546763;0.00131678627659656;0.789349577520142;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Belarus;1;0.0833333333333334;0.105035971223022;0.00311629014622457;0.71644723914325;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;0;0;1;2;1
Belgium;0.916666666666667;1;0.453237410071942;0.329910507131293;0.906857928866182;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Belize;1;0.916666666666667;0.0920863309352518;0.0204429657336308;0.701120062880723;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Benin;1;0.833333333333333;0.0100719424460432;0.000158328460428524;0.401257614462566;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Bermuda;1;1;1;0.285681834737974;0.890941245824327;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;
Bhutan;1;0.25;0.0143884892086331;2.01260682164534e-006;0.435449007663588;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;0
Bolivia;1;0.666666666666667;0.0330935251798561;0.00272989463520175;0.65278050697583;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Bosnia and Herzegovina;1;0.583333333333333;0.0920863309352518;0.00289801399046188;0.891727254863431;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;1;2;1
Botswana;1;0.833333333333333;0.138129496402878;0.00151183069765953;0.0220082530949107;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Brazil;1;0.75;0.115107913669065;0.0357200531493069;0.77323639221851;calculate IV;1;1;0;1;1;1;2;0;1;0
Brunei;1;0.25;0.333812949640288;0.000108826795393671;0.832973079190411;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;1
Bulgaria;1;0.916666666666667;0.123741007194245;0.0197846502011744;0.779720966791118;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Burkina Faso;1;0.416666666666667;0.0115107913669065;4.10318359952257e-005;0.318923167616428;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1
Burma;0.916666666666667;0;0.0172661870503597;1.3879346935283e-006;0.557083906464924;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;0
Burundi;1;0.333333333333333;0.00287769784172662;2.930213687102e-005;0.357437610532521;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1
Cambodia;1;0.25;0.0258992805755396;0.000144880990274733;0.524071526822558;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;1
Cameroon;0.916666666666667;0.166666666666667;0.0215827338129496;2.99869301875054e-006;0.364315189624681;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;1
Canada;0.916666666666667;1;0.467625899280576;0.162897042870183;0.9353507565337;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Cape Verde;1;1;0.0834532374100719;0.000563107137961415;0.748870112006288;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Central African Republic;1;0.25;0.0100719424460432;4.62014753108993e-006;0.214580467675378;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Chad;0.916666666666667;0.25;0.0201438848920863;1.07658397856977e-006;0.292788367066221;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Chile;1;1;0.156834532374101;0.0317975121349218;0.867557476910984;calculate IV;1;1;0;0;1;0;1;0;1;0
China;0.916666666666667;0.0833333333333334;0.0848920863309353;0.000218249315914352;0.785223030064846;calculate IV;1;1;0;1;1;1;2;0;1;0
Colombia;1;0.5;0.0964028776978417;0.0135636240448688;0.773629396738062;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;1;0;1;0;1;0
Comoros;1;0.5;0.00287769784172662;1.32808433087925e-005;0.583808213794459;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Congo Dem;0.833333333333333;0.166666666666667;0.00575539568345324;4.58863386799357e-006;0.37021025741796;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;1;0
Congo Rep;1;0.416666666666667;0.00431654676258993;1.90022203067273e-005;0.396541560227943;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Cook Islands;1;1;0.0661870503597122;0.0387568861854605;;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Costa Rica;1;1;0.139568345323741;0.004720368771354;0.872470033405384;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Cote d’Ivoire;1;0.166666666666667;0.0158273381294964;0.000174554462920693;0.3183336608371;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;1;0
Croatia;1;0.833333333333333;0.161151079136691;0.00659054790531347;0.826488504617803;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Cuba;1;0;0.041726618705036;0.000257702422466492;0.880133621536648;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;1
Cyprus;0.916666666666667;1;0.0969064748201439;0.0913833521351755;0.888190214187463;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;0;0;0;1;2
Czech Republic;1;1;0.254676258992806;0.122491576322979;0.856749852623305;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Denmark;1;1;0.474820143884892;0.592043287082336;0.887600707408135;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Djibouti;1;0.333333333333333;0.0129496402877698;0.00159059883049244;0.207309884063667;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Dominica;1;1;0.0733812949640288;0.00989856810004718;0.830222047553547;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Dominican Republic;1;0.833333333333333;0.0892086330935252;0.0135883949793045;0.768520337983887;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
East Timor;1;0.666666666666667;0;0.000309396986439389;0.661033601886422;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;1;2;0
Ecuador;0.916666666666667;0.666666666666667;0.0503597122302158;0.00183075741976403;0.860679897818825;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Egypt;1;0.25;0.0575539568345324;3.29969533777493e-005;0.759874238553743;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;1;0;1;0
El Salvador;1;0.75;0.0676258992805755;0.000987259447942095;0.763804283749263;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Equatorial Guinea;1;0.0833333333333334;0.716546762589928;5.09695568256976e-005;0.332481823540971;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Eritrea;0.833333333333333;0.0833333333333334;0.00863309352517986;0.000334505732695792;0.518962468068383;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Estonia;1;1;0.23021582733813;0.0582502298465326;0.774611908036942;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Ethiopia;0.916666666666667;0.333333333333333;0.00575539568345324;1.77936598444122e-006;0.322460208292395;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;0;0
Fiji;1;0.583333333333333;0.0820143884892086;0.00290702765736732;0.730988406366673;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Finland;1;1;0.434532374100719;0.439688461565612;0.90155236785223;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
France;0.916666666666667;1;0.42589928057554;0.0734106119922448;0.925722145804677;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Gabon;1;0.416666666666667;0.0776978417266187;0.000332732516856352;0.429750442130085;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;1;0
Gambia;1;0.5;0.0201438848920863;1.21117054216595e-005;0.422872863037925;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Georgia;0.916666666666667;0.583333333333333;0.041726618705036;0.00293380509836003;0.854195323246217;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Germany;1;1;0.423021582733813;0.142083248439128;0.90744743564551;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Ghana;1;0.833333333333333;0.0287769784172662;2.6207007248577e-005;0.515818431911967;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;1;0
Greece;0.916666666666667;0.916666666666667;0.322302158273381;0.0593444532851753;0.916093535075653;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Grenada;1;0.916666666666667;0.0661870503597122;0.000306891813736115;0.633719787777559;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Guam;1;1;0.210071942446043;0.000849569688786761;0.903124385930438;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Guatemala;1;0.5;0.0690647482014388;0.00502663953061769;0.72234230693653;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;1;0;0;0;1;0
Guinea;1;0.25;0.0258992805755396;5.7449654792886e-005;0.331695814501867;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Guinea-Bissau;1;0.5;0.00575539568345324;5.30292856022288e-006;0.280015720180782;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Guyana;1;0.833333333333333;0.0489208633093525;0.00182193087388134;0.653173511495382;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Haiti;0.916666666666667;0.0833333333333334;0.0172661870503597;5.52227700830592e-007;0.40499115739831;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;0;0
Holy See (Vatican City);1;1;;0.0590753570119543;;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Honduras;1;0.666666666666667;0.0345323741007194;0.000994269302805864;0.72135979563765;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Hungary;1;1;0.22589928057554;0.0400369158635287;0.786795048143053;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Iceland;1;1;0.496402877697842;0.971312252203734;0.937119276871684;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
India;0.666666666666667;0.75;0.0431654676258993;0.00109961419760908;0.630575751621143;calculate IV;1;1;0;1;1;0;1;0;1;0
Indonesia;0.916666666666667;0.583333333333333;0.0474820143884892;0.000839522442599572;0.731970917665553;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0;1;0
Iran;0.916666666666667;0.166666666666667;0.110791366906475;0.000116805809586501;0.739634505796817;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;1;0;1;0
Iraq;0.583333333333333;0.166666666666667;0.0431654676258993;2.28409585712742e-007;0.715071723324818;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Ireland;1;1;0.484892086330935;0.0898706862880126;0.886421693849479;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Israel;0.75;0.833333333333333;0.315107913669065;0.257403668722424;0.920416584790725;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Italy;0.916666666666667;1;0.402877697841727;0.0327868312198717;0.927294163882885;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Jamaica;1;0.75;0.0546762589928058;0.000704776686842666;0.798192179210061;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;1;0;1;0
Japan;1;0.916666666666667;0.435971223021583;0.255623428084247;0.955590489290627;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Jordan;1;0.416666666666667;0.0633093525179856;0.000723171624212719;0.89958734525447;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Kazakhstan;1;0.25;0.120863309352518;0.00204080098472499;0.673413244252309;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;0;1;2;1;2;1
Kenya;1;0.666666666666667;0.0115107913669065;0.000513135380841281;0.320495185694635;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0;1;0
Kiribati;1;1;0.00575539568345324;0.000522215577198017;0.578895657300059;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;0;0
Korea DPRK;0.75;0;0.0201438848920863;;0.766948319905679;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;1
Korea ROK;0.75;0.916666666666667;0.287769784172662;0.170125881668889;0.872863037924936;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;2
Kuwait;0.916666666666667;0.416666666666667;0.322302158273381;0.00154242725140448;0.876007074081352;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Kyrgyzstan;1;0.25;0.0201438848920863;0.00543805430471483;0.704853605816467;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;0;1;2;1;2;1
Laos;1;0.0833333333333334;0.0215827338129496;0.000276653639623723;0.449400668107683;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;0
Latvia;1;0.916666666666667;0.181294964028777;0.0358027778984147;0.760660247592847;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Lebanon;0.833333333333333;0.25;0.0705035971223022;0.00132843287138317;0.791118097858125;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;1;0
Lesotho;1;0.75;0.037410071942446;0.000116463073788665;0.0349774022401258;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Liberia;1;0.416666666666667;0.00719424460431655;2.51379576383517e-006;0.138141088622519;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Libya;1;0;0.115107913669065;1.21817621318283e-005;0.865985458832776;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Liechtenstein;1;1;0.353956834532374;0.337090669814066;0.924739634505797;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Lithuania;1;0.833333333333333;0.194244604316547;0.0581518140472541;0.817056396148556;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Luxembourg;1;1;0.794244604316547;0.227162501032372;0.909215955983494;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Macedonia;1;0.666666666666667;0.103597122302158;0.00264103698202664;0.812536844173708;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Madagascar;1;0.666666666666667;0.00719424460431655;6.62077014444708e-005;0.485753586166241;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Malawi;1;0.5;0.00287769784172662;3.58435711786703e-005;0.178424051876597;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Malaysia;1;0.5;0.143884892086331;0.00948517882398848;0.783651011986638;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0;1;0
Maldives;1;0.25;0.0503597122302158;0.00572125958221411;0.624680683827864;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Mali;1;0.833333333333333;0.00863309352517986;3.5243046178583e-005;0.321870701513067;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Malta;1;1;0.267625899280576;0.0410384861698077;0.911573983100806;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;0;0;1;2;
Marshall Islands;1;1;0.0172661870503597;0.000151871373382602;0.740617017095697;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;
Martinique;1;1;0.201438848920863;0.000245471371589671;0.914914521516997;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Mauritania;1;0.25;0.023021582733813;1.01080832522917e-005;0.402829632540774;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Mauritius;1;1;0.184172661870504;0.0061061087343336;0.786205541363726;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;
Mayotte;1;1;0.0316546762589928;7.60008424895359e-006;0.572607584987227;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Mexico;1;0.833333333333333;0.139568345323741;0.0288463173193589;0.84083316958145;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;0
Micronesia;1;1;0.023021582733813;0.00613151538994343;0.735507958341521;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Moldova;1;0.583333333333333;0.0244604316546763;0.0105667733699509;0.649046964040087;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Monaco;1;0.916666666666667;0.38273381294964;0.0336492355740962;0.924936136765573;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Mongolia;1;0.833333333333333;0.0258992805755396;0.000103679619945581;0.634112792297111;calculate IV;1;1;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;1
Montserrat;1;1;0.0431654676258993;0.0588166663219277;0.90842994694439;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;
Morocco;0.916666666666667;0.416666666666667;0.0561151079136691;0.000116770709792534;0.752996659461584;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Mozambique;1;0.583333333333333;0.0129496402877698;0.000561525248739346;0.141481627038711;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Namibia;0.916666666666667;0.75;0.112230215827338;0.00244880186837669;0.211632933778738;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Nauru;1;1;0.0661870503597122;0.00598544128811652;0.598545883277658;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Nepal;1;0.333333333333333;0.0158273381294964;0.000424208066849347;0.541560227942621;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;0
Netherlands;0.916666666666667;1;0.434532374100719;0.628928196417423;0.910591471801926;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
New Caledonia;1;1;0.210071942446043;0.0471836666246662;0.818431911966988;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;
New Zealand;1;1;0.342446043165468;0.282050063522977;0.907643937905286;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Nicaragua;1;0.666666666666667;0.0287769784172662;0.0034672813730534;0.746905089408528;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Niger;1;0.666666666666667;0.00575539568345324;1.67285900979496e-005;0.21890351739045;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Nigeria;0.916666666666667;0.5;0.00863309352517986;1.78039333935262e-005;0.284142267636078;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;1;0;1;0
Niue;1;1;0.0460431654676259;;;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;
Norfolk Island;1;1;;0.0761351078728705;;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;
Northern Marianas;1;1;0.17410071942446;0.000370946859349235;0.854195323246217;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;
Norway;1;1;0.60431654676259;0.445358671871538;0.921988602868933;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Oman;1;0.25;0.18705035971223;0.00160766927541183;0.800746708587149;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Pakistan;0.583333333333333;0.25;0.0287769784172662;0.000353367603246632;0.604637453330713;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;1;0
Palau;1;1;0.123741007194245;0.000222954762683404;0.742778541953232;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Panama;1;0.916666666666667;0.0964028776978417;0.00336088295023979;0.837099626645706;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Papua New Guinea;1;0.666666666666667;0.0287769784172662;0.000245165256906977;0.641776380428375;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Paraguay;1;0.666666666666667;0.0647482014388489;0.00239900028347388;0.834741599528394;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Peru;0.916666666666667;0.75;0.0820143884892086;0.0111063878417032;0.731381410886225;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;1;0;1;0;1;0
Philippines;0.916666666666667;0.75;0.0676258992805755;0.00164959018715851;0.738651994497937;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;1;0;0;0;1;0
Poland;1;1;0.176978417266187;0.0145609155871383;0.832187070151307;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Portugal;0.916666666666667;1;0.261870503597122;0.121992621196446;0.885832187070151;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Puerto Rico;1;1;0.260431654676259;5.14057862000796e-005;0.89958734525447;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Qatar;1;0.25;0.369784172661871;0.0003523956408257;0.811161328355276;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Reunion;1;1;0.0834532374100719;5.63145839159555e-005;0.816663391629004;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Romania;1;0.75;0.115107913669065;0.00385291392764371;0.766555315386127;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;1;2;1
Russia;0.916666666666667;0.25;0.148201438848921;0.013982741163937;0.677146787188053;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Rwanda;0.833333333333333;0.25;0.0129496402877698;0.00028082911379984;0.28846531735115;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Saint Helena;1;1;0.0302158273381295;;0.890351739044999;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;
Saint Kitts and Nevis;1;0.916666666666667;0.120863309352518;0.00187612709193152;0.781685989388878;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;
Saint Lucia;1;0.916666666666667;0.0719424460431655;0.000226969831316104;0.80998231479662;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;
Saint Pierre and Miquelon;1;1;0.0949640287769784;0;0.903713892709766;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines;1;0.916666666666667;0.0359712230215827;0.000272531586695001;0.810178817056396;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;
Samoa;1;0.833333333333333;0.0748201438848921;0.0792759818319325;0.75417567302024;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;0;0
San Marino;1;1;0.492086330935252;0.113249814920208;0.964629593240322;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Sao Tome;1;0.833333333333333;0.0115107913669065;0.00807346277749045;0.6816663391629;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;
Saudi Arabia;0.916666666666667;0;0.179856115107914;0.000584991056389378;0.845942228335626;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Senegal;1;0.75;0.018705035971223;7.25967441461536e-005;0.523285517783454;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0;1;0
Serbia and Montenegro;1;0.75;0.0330935251798561;0.0031125695733421;0.831794065631755;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;0;0;1;2;1
Seychelles;1;0.666666666666667;0.106474820143885;0.0098469795651367;0.775397917076046;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Sierra Leone;1;0.583333333333333;0.00719424460431655;7.05453583097852e-005;0.14934171742975;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Singapore;1;0.416666666666667;0.424460431654676;0.231297661940152;0.964629593240322;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Slovakia;1;1;0.22158273381295;0.0382362334472818;0.827471015916683;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Slovenia;1;1;0.296402877697842;0.0449534192123646;0.858911377480841;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
Solomon Islands;1;0.666666666666667;0.018705035971223;0.00204865082014254;0.791707604637453;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;
Somalia;1;0.0833333333333334;0.00287769784172662;3.45105953028967e-007;0.31145608174494;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
South Africa;1;0.916666666666667;0.168345323741007;0.0159410352010711;0.198663784633523;calculate IV;1;1;0;1;0;0;0;1;2;2
Spain;0.833333333333333;1;0.356834532374101;0.0522649945278463;0.924150127726469;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Sri Lanka;1;0.666666666666667;0.0561151079136691;0.000455666978849396;0.801532717626253;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;1;0;1;0;1;0
Sudan;0.916666666666667;0;0.0244604316546763;3.70884987462751e-008;0.516800943210847;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Suriname;1;0.916666666666667;0.0532374100719424;0.000424912342628455;0.715071723324818;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Swaziland;1;0.166666666666667;0.0733812949640288;0.0032315131329021;0;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Sweden;1;1;0.423021582733813;0.458221068657248;0.941049322067204;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Switzerland;1;1;0.502158273381295;0.370564930877604;0.941049322067204;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Syria;0.833333333333333;0;0.0431654676258993;5.18401733011997e-006;0.740813519355472;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;1;0
Taiwan;1;0.916666666666667;0.37841726618705;0.254835169103505;0.8805266260562;calculate IV;1;1;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;2
Tajikistan;1;0.25;0.0115107913669065;1.31613634938866e-005;0.635095303595991;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;0;1;2;1;2;1
Tanzania;1;0.583333333333333;0.00431654676258993;0.000377433422623538;0.255845942228336;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Thailand;0.916666666666667;0.75;0.113669064748201;0.0186046838454247;0.778738455492238;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;0
Togo;1;0.25;0.018705035971223;5.65043946349173e-005;0.487325604244449;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Tokelau;1;1;0.00863309352517986;0.332907178295575;;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Tonga;1;0.5;0.0273381294964029;0.252167741801627;0.730988406366673;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Trinidad and Tobago;1;0.666666666666667;0.179856115107914;0.0246389686457361;0.670858714875221;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;1;0;0;0;1;0
Tunisia;1;0.25;0.103597122302158;6.40315994355559e-005;0.835134604047947;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Turkey;0.833333333333333;0.666666666666667;0.107913669064748;0.0163637624680335;0.78600903910395;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;0;1;2;1;2;0
Turkmenistan;1;0;0.0820143884892086;0.000168924593695902;0.573983100805659;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;2;0
Turks and Caicos Islands;1;1;0.159712230215827;0.107589839560602;0.827471015916683;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;1;0
Tuvalu;1;1;0.0100719424460432;;0.701513067400275;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;0;0;0
Uganda;0.916666666666667;0.416666666666667;0.018705035971223;0.00013538814400813;0.393987030850855;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Ukraine;1;0.583333333333333;0.0920863309352518;0.00548428122405604;0.734132442523089;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;1
United Arab Emirates;1;0.166666666666667;0.41294964028777;0.06962953750301;0.841422676360778;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
United Kingdom;0.666666666666667;1;0.438848920863309;0.118303500178793;0.902338376891334;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
United States;0;1;0.598561151079137;1;0.888779720966791;calculate IV;2;1;1;2;1;1;2;1;2;2
Uruguay;1;1;0.224460431654676;0.0503427032711818;0.858911377480841;calculate IV;1;1;0;0;1;1;2;0;1;0
Uzbekistan;1;0.0833333333333334;0.023021582733813;0.000398995094107751;0.628021222244056;calculate IV;0;0;1;2;0;0;0;1;2;1
Vanuatu;1;0.833333333333333;0.0359712230215827;0.00356594581904525;0.59402633130281;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;0;0
Venezuela;1;0.583333333333333;0.0877697841726619;0.00344004118463246;0.823737472980939;calculate IV;0;0;0;1;1;0;1;0;1;0
Vietnam;1;0.0833333333333334;0.037410071942446;6.54319022675747e-005;0.7512281391236;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;1;0;0;0;1;1
Yemen;0.916666666666667;0.333333333333333;0.00575539568345324;1.18324666396077e-005;0.579681666339163;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0
Zambia;1;0.5;0.00719424460431655;0.000370846803438677;0.145608174494007;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0
Zimbabwe;0.916666666666667;0.0833333333333334;0.0244604316546763;0.000822639587572765;0.131067007270584;calculate IV;0;0;0;0;0;0;1;0;1;0


Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 13, Appendix: Computer Code

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

Below is the perl code I used for data smoothing.

use strict;

 my %countries  = {}; my %countries_xml = {};

 run();

 # the grandparent function sub run {  getDVs();  getIVs();  getReports(); }

 # the three parent functions sub getDVs {  getIOs("Nonaligned Movement","Group of 15","Organization of the Islamic Conference","African Union","Group of 77","Group of 24");  getIGs("least developed countries","less developed countries");  getBarnettWorlds(); # barnett and worlds data in one file }

 sub getIVs {  getPoors();  #// "life in the Gap is poor"  getNasties();  #// "life in the Gap is nasty"  getShorts();  #// "life in the Gap is short"  getBrutals();  #// "life in the Gap is brutal"  getSolitaries(); #// "life in the Gap is solitary" }

 sub getReports {  getCountriesXML();  setIV();   setDVs();  getCSVView();  getXMLView(); }

 # the child functions

 # first, the children of getDVs() # specifically, getIOs(), getIGs(), getBarnettWorlds()

 sub getIOs { # get international organizations  my @ios = @_;

  my $io = "";

  my $file = "C:/Downloads/factbook/appendix/appendix-b.html";  my $line = "";

  my @fields = ();  my @nations = ();  my $nation = "";

  open(IOFILE,$file) || die "Couldn't open $file: $!";

  while ($line = ) {   if ($line =~ m/
/) {    foreach $io (@ios) {     if ($line =~ m/$io/ && $line =~ m//) {

      until ($line =~ m/>members/i) {       $line = ;      }      $line =~ s/(/,/g;      $line =~ s/)/,/g;      $line =~ s/

//g;

      @fields = split(/- ,/,$line);      @nations = split(/,/,$fields[$#fields]);      shift(@nations); # first one is junk

      foreach $nation (@nations) {       $nation = trim($nation);       $countries{$io}{$nation} = 1;      }     }         }   }  } }

 sub getIGs { # get international groups  my @igs = @_;

  my $ig = "";

  my $file = "C:/Downloads/factbook/appendix/appendix-b.html";  my $line = "";

  my @fields = ();

  my @nations = ();  my $nation = "";

  open(IOFILE,$file) || die "Couldn't open $file: $!";

  while ($line = ) {   if ($line =~ m/
/) {    foreach $ig (@igs) {     if ($line =~ m/$ig/ && $line =~ m//) {

      until ($line =~ m/are: /i) {       $line = ;      }      $line =~ s/(/,/g;      $line =~ s/)/,/g;      $line =~ s/

//g;

      @fields = split(/are: /, $line);

      $fields[$#fields] =~ s/;.*//g;

      @nations = split(/,/,$fields[$#fields]);

      foreach $nation (@nations) {       $nation = trim($nation);       $countries{$ig}{$nation} = 1;      }

     }         }   }  }  }

 sub getBarnettWorlds {  my $file = "c:/downloads/coregapworlds.csv";

  my @lines = ();  my @fields = ();

  my $line = "";

  open(BARNETT,$file) || die "Couldn't open $file: $!";  @lines = ;  close(BARNETT);

  foreach $line (@lines) {   @fields = split(/t/, $line);   #fields0 name   #fields1 old core new core gap   #fields2: first world second world third world   #fields3 neither g22 g77

   $countries{"CG"}{$fields[0]}  = $fields[1];   $countries{"Worlds123"}{$fields[0]} = $fields[2];   $countries{"Group of 22"}{$fields[0]}  = $fields[3];  }  }

 # second, the children of getIVs() # specifically, getPoors, getNasties, getShorts, getBrutals, getSolitaries

 sub getPoors {  getCIAInfo("poor","C:/Downloads/factbook/rankorder/2004rank.txt",["$",","]); }

 sub getNasties {  my $file = "c:/downloads/FIWrank7305.csv";

  my @fields = ();

  my $line = "";  my $state = "";  my $pr  = 0;  my $cl  = 0;

  open(FREE,$file) || die "Couldn't open $file: $!";  while ($line = ) {   @fields = split(/t/, $line);

   $state = $fields[0];   $pr = $fields[$#fields-2];   $cl = $fields[$#fields-1];

   if ($pr =~ m/[0-9]/ && $cl =~ m/[0-9]/) {    $countries{"nasty"}{$state} = ($pr + $cl) / 2;   }  }  close(FREE);  }

 sub getBrutals {  my $file_war = "c:/downloads/icb2.csv";  my $file_code = "c:/downloads/fields.csv";

  my @codes = ();  my @fields = ();

  my $line = "";  my $name = "";  my $state = "";  my $war  = "";  my $year_start = 0;  my $year_end = 0;

  # get the country codes  open(CODES,$file_code) || die "Couldn't open $file_code: $!";  while ($line = ) {   chomp($line);   $line =~ s/"//g;   @fields = split(/t/,$line);   $fields[0] = trim($fields[0]);   $fields[1] = trim($fields[1]);   $countries{"codes"}{$fields[1]} = $fields[0];   $countries{"wars"}{$fields[1]} = 0; # baseline 0 if country is in db  }  close(CODES);

  # get the wars  open(WARS,$file_war) || die "Couldn't open $file_war : $!";  while ($line = ) {   @fields = split(/t/,$line);   # $fields[4] = Actor   # $fields[5] = Start Year   # $fields[8] .. $fields[13] = war name   # $fields[57] (?) = year term

   $state  = $fields[4];   $year_start = $fields[5];   $year_end = $fields[5];

   $name  = "$fields[8]$fields[9]$fields[10]$fields[11]$fields[12]$fields[13]";

   if ($year_end > 1992) {    if ($year_start < 1992) {     $year_start = 1992;    }    $countries{"wars"}{$state} = $countries{"wars"}{$state} + ($year_end - $year_start + 1)   }  }  close(WARS);

  # now do the math  foreach $war (sort keys %{$countries{"wars"}}) {   $countries{"brutal"}{$countries{"codes"}{$war}} = $countries{"wars"}{$war};   $countries{"wars"}{$countries{"codes"}{$war}} = $countries{"wars"}{$war};  }  delete $countries{"codes"};  #delete $countries{"wars"}; }

 sub getShorts {  getCIAInfo("short","C:/Downloads/factbook/rankorder/2102rank.txt",["$"]); # life expectency }

 sub getSolitaries {  getCIAInfo("hosts","C:/Downloads/factbook/rankorder/2184rank.txt",[","]); # internet hosts  getCIAInfo("population","C:/Downloads/factbook/rankorder/2119rank.txt",[","]); # population

  my $key = "";

  foreach $key (keys %{$countries{"hosts"}}) {   if (exists($countries{"population"}{$key}) && exists($countries{"population"}{$key})) {    $countries{"solitary"}{$key} = $countries{"hosts"}{$key} / $countries{"population"}{$key};   }  } }

 # third, the children of getReports() # specifically, getCountriesXML, setIV, setDVs, getCSVView, getXMLView sub getCountriesXML {  my $file = "c:/downloads/rename.csv";

  my @keys = sort keys %countries;  my @nations = ();  my @lines = ();  my @fields = ();

  my $key  = "";  my $nation = "";  my $line = "";

  # first, simply transform the data structure  foreach $key (@keys) {   #print "Working on key $keyn";   @nations = sort keys %{$countries{$key}};   foreach $nation (@nations) {    if ($nation) {     $countries_xml{$nation}{$key} = $countries{$key}{$nation};    }   }  }

  # then, fix an errors  open(FILE,$file) || die "Couldn't open $file: $!";  @lines = ;  close(FILE);

  foreach $line (@lines) {   chomp($line);   @fields = split(/t/,$line);   # fields0: old name   # fields1: correct name

   if ($countries_xml{$fields[0]}) {    @keys = keys %{$countries_xml{$fields[0]}};    foreach $key (@keys) {     $countries_xml{$fields[1]}{$key} = $countries_xml{$fields[0]}{$key};    }    delete $countries_xml{$fields[0]};   }  }

  # remove countries that shouldn't exist  foreach $nation (sort keys %countries_xml) {   unless (exists($countries_xml{$nation}{"CG"})) {    delete $countries_xml{$nation};   }  }

  # then, back-propagate the changes  %countries = undef;  @nations = sort keys %countries_xml;  foreach $nation (@nations) {   @keys = sort keys %{$countries_xml{$nation}};   foreach $key (@keys) {    $countries{$key}{$nation} = $countries_xml{$nation}{$key};   }  } }

 sub setDVs {  my @nations = sort keys %countries_xml;

  my $nation = "";

  foreach $nation (@nations) {   if (    $countries_xml{$nation}{"African Union"}    == 1 ||    $countries_xml{$nation}{"Organization of the Islamic Conference"} == 1   ) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_AfricanIslam"}    = 0;   } else{    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_AfricanIslam"}    = 1;   }

   # BarnettCalculation   if ($countries_xml{$nation}{"CG"}      == 1) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_OCNCG"}     = 0;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_CG"}     = 0;   } elsif ($countries_xml{$nation}{"CG"}     == 2) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_OCNCG"}     = 1;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_CG"}     = 1;   } elsif ($countries_xml{$nation}{"CG"}     == 3) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_OCNCG"}     = 2;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_CG"}     = 1;   }

   # Group of 22 / Group of 77   if ( $countries_xml{$nation}{"Group of 77"}     == 1 &&    $countries_xml{$nation}{"Group of 22"}     == 2   )  { # both means G77:0 but G22:1    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G77"}     = 0;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G2277"}     = 1;   } elsif ($countries_xml{$nation}{"Group of 77"}     == 1) { # just G00 is 0 for both    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G2277"}     = 0;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G77"}     = 0;   } else {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G77"}     = 1;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G2277"}     = 2;   }

   ## developed countries   if ( $countries_xml{$nation}{"least developed countries"}   == 1 &&    $countries_xml{$nation}{"less developed countries"}   == 1   )  {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_LDCs"}     = 0;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_LDCsLLDCs"}     = 0;   } elsif ($countries_xml{$nation}{"less developed countries"}   == 1) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_LDCs"}     = 0;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_LDCsLLDCs"}     = 1;   } else {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_LDCs"}     = 1;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_LDCsLLDCs"}     = 2;   }

   ## worlds 1 2 3   if ($countries_xml{$nation}{"Worlds123"}     == 1) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_WorldsFreeComNon"}    = 2;   } elsif ($countries_xml{$nation}{"Worlds123"}     == 2) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_WorldsFreeComNon"}    = 1;   } elsif ($countries_xml{$nation}{"Worlds123"}     == 3) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_WorldsFreeComNon"}    = 0;   } 

   # Group of 15 / NAM   if ( $countries_xml{$nation}{"Nonaligned Movement"}) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_Nalign"}     = 0;    if ($countries_xml{$nation}{"Group of 15"}) {      $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G15Nalign"}    = 1;    } else {     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G15Nalign"}    = 0;    }   } else {    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_Nalign"}     = 1;    $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G15Nalign"}     = 2;   }  }    } 

 sub setIV {  my @nations = sort keys %countries_xml;  my $nation = "";

  my @keys = ();  my $key  = "";

  scaleDataXML("brutal");  scaleDataXML("nasty");  scaleDataXML("poor");  scaleDataXML("solitary");  scaleDataXML("short");   

  foreach $nation (@nations) {   $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_brutal"} = 1 - $countries_xml{$nation}{"brutal"};   $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_nasty"} = 1 - $countries_xml{$nation}{"nasty"};   $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_poor"} = $countries_xml{$nation}{"poor"};   $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_solitary"} = $countries_xml{$nation}{"solitary"};   $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_short"} = $countries_xml{$nation}{"short"};  } }

 sub getCSVView {  my @nations = keys %countries_xml;  my $nation = "";

  @nations = sort @nations;

  open (CSVFILE,">report.csv") || die "Couldn't open report.csv: $!";  print CSVFILE  "Nation;Brutal;Nasty;Poor;Solitary;Short;IV;OCNCG;CG;G77;G2277;AfroIslam;Nalign;G15Nalign;LDCs;LDCsLLDCs;FreeComNonn";  print CSVFILE "BrutalnNastynPoornSolitarynShortnIVnOCNCGnCGnG77nG2277nAfroIslamnNalignnG15NalignnLDCsnLLDCsLDCsnFreeComNonnnn";

  foreach $nation (@nations) {   if (exists($countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_CG"})) {    print CSVFILE (     $nation      . ";" .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_brutal"}   . ";" .      $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_nasty"}   . ";" .      $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_poor"}   . ";" .      $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_solitary"}   . ";" .      $countries_xml{$nation}{"IV_short"}   . ";" .      "calculate IV"      . ";" .          $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_OCNCG"}   . ";" .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_CG"}   . ";" .      $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G77"}   . ";"  .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G2277"}   . ";"  .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_AfricanIslam"}  . ";" .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_Nalign"}   . ";" .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_G15Nalign"}   . ";" .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_LDCs"}   . ";"  .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_LDCsLLDCs"}  . ";"  .     $countries_xml{$nation}{"DV_WorldsFreeComNon"}  . "n"    );    }  }  close(CSVFILE); }

 sub getXMLView {  my @keys = keys %countries;  my @nations = ();  my @values = ();

  my %names = {};

  my $key  = "";  my $nation = "";  my $value = "";

  open (XMLFILE,">report.xml") || die "Couldn't open report.xml: $!";  print XMLFILE "n";  foreach $nation (sort keys %countries_xml) {   print XMLFILE "tn";   foreach $value (sort keys %{$countries_xml{$nation}}) {    print XMLFILE "tt$countries_xml{$nation}{$value}n";   }   print XMLFILE "tn";  }  print XMLFILE "n";  close(XMLFILE);

 }

 # fourth, the grandchildren go here # specifically, getCIAInfo, scaleDataXML, scaleData, and trim sub getCIAInfo {  my $record = shift(@_);  my $file = shift(@_);  my @to_remove = @{shift(@_)};

  my $remove = "";

  my $line = "";  my @lines = ();  my $linec = 0;

  my $field = "";  my @fields = ();

  open(FILE, $file) || die "Couldn't open $file: $!";  @lines = ;  for ($linec=2;$linec<=$#lines;$linec++) {    @fields = split(/t/, $lines[$linec]);

   if ($fields[1]) { # if the country is named

    # rank order is $fields[0]    # country is $fields[1]    # GDP per capiat is $fields[2]    # year est is $fields[3]

    $fields[1] = trim($fields[1]);

    foreach $remove (@to_remove) {     $fields[2] =~ s/[$remove]//g;    }    #print "Length of temp is $#temp and temp0 is $temp[0]n";    #$fields[2] = join("",@temp);    $fields[2] = trim($fields[2]);

    $countries{$record}{$fields[1]} = $fields[2];;   }  } }

 sub scaleDataXML {  print "Entering scaleDataXMLn";  my $record = shift(@_);

  my @nations = sort keys %countries_xml;  my $nation = "";

  my $min  = $countries_xml{$nations[0]}{$record};  my $max  = $countries_xml{$nations[0]}{$record};

  # first, find min and max  foreach $nation (@nations) {   if (exists($countries_xml{$nation}{$record})) {    if ($max < $countries_xml{$nation}{$record}) {     $max = $countries_xml{$nation}{$record};    }    if ($min > $countries_xml{$nation}{$record}) {     $min = $countries_xml{$nation}{$record};    }   }  }

  print "$record goes from $min to $maxn";

  # second, scale  foreach $nation (@nations) {   if (exists($countries_xml{$nation}{$record})) {    $countries_xml{$nation}{$record} = ($countries_xml{$nation}{$record} - $min) / ($max - $min);   }  } }

 # function from http://www.somacon.com/p114.php sub trim($) {  my $string = shift;  $string =~ s/^s+//;  $string =~ s/s+$//;  return $string; } 

Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 12, Bibliography

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

Below is the bibliography for this project. Many of the documents cited can be obtained from JSTOR.


Agnew, John A. 1995. Mastering Space. New York: Routledge.

Ansah, Esi E. 2002. Theorizing the Brain Drain. African Issues 30: 21-24.

Ansley, Fran. 2001. Inclusive Boundaries and Other (Im)possible Paths toward Community Development in a Global World. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 150: 353-417.

Baker, Raymond. 1995. Combative Cultural Politics: Film Art and Political Spaces in Egypt. Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics 15: 6-38.

Barnett, Clive. 1995. Awakening the Dead: Who Needs the History of Geography?. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20: 417-419.

Barnett, Thomas P.M. 2003. The Pentagon’s New Map: It Explains Why We’re Going to War, and Why We’ll Keep going to War. Esquire. Stable URL: http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm.

Barnett, Thomas P.M. 2004. The Pentagon’s New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Barnett, Thomas P.M. 2005. Glossary. The Newsletter from Thomas P.M. Barnett 1.13. Stable URL: http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/journals/barnett_1aug2005.doc.

Barnett, Thomas P.M. 2006. Blueprint for Action: A Future Worth Creating. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Barone, Michael. 2005, August 27. Fall Reading. U.S. News & World Report. Stable URL: http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/baroneblog/columns/barone_050827a.htm.

Beckstrom, John H. 1974. Handicaps of Legal-Social Engineering in a Developing Nation. The American Journal of Comparative Law 22: 697-712.

Broad, Robin, and Cavanagh, John. 1995-1996. Don’t Neglect the Impoverished South. Foreign Policy 101. 18-35.
Brosius, J. Peter. 1999. Analyses and Interventions: Anthropological Engagements with Environmentalism. Current Anthropology 40: 277-309.

Caprioli, Mary and Boyer, Mark A. Gender, Violence and International Crisis. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 45:503-518.

Center for International Development & Conflict Management (CIDCM). 2006. Actor-Level Primary Data Collections. International Crisis Behavior Project. Stable URL: http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/icb/Data/icb2v6-txt.zip.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2006a. Appendix B – International Organizations and Groups. The World Factbook. Stable URL: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/appendix/appendix-b.html.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2006b. Rank Order – Internet Hosts. The World Factbook. Stable URL: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2184rank.txt.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2006c. Rank Order – GDP – per capita (PPP). The World Factbook. Stable URL: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2004rank.txt.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2006d. Rank Order – Life Expectancy at Birth. The World Factbook. Stable URL: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2102rank.txt.

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2006e. Rank Order – Population. The World Factbook. Stable URL: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2119rank.txt.

Chaikivsky, Andrew. 2002, December. [the strategist]. Esquire 163. Stable URL: http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/media/BestandBrightest.htm.

Chichilnisky, Graciela. 1994. North-South Trade and the Global Environment. The American Economic Review 84: 851-874.

Coderre, Dave. 2003. Transforming the Pentagon Vision of the Global Security Environment. The Naval Supply Corps Newsletter. Stable URL: http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/interviews/SupplyCorpsQandA.htm.

Cohen, Saul B. 1991. Presidential Address: Global Geopolitical Change in the Post-Cold War Era. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 81: 551-580.

Davenport, Christian and Armstrong, David A. II. 2004. Democracy and the Violation of Human Rights: A Statistical Analysis from 1976 to 1996. American Journal of Political Science 48:538-554.

Dawson, Marc H. 1987. The Many Minds of Sir Halford J. Mackinder: Dilemmas of Historical Editing. History in Africa 14:27-42.

Demeny, Paul. 2003. Population Policy Dilemmas in Europe at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Population and Development Review 29: 1-28.

Dodds, Klaus-John. 1994. Geopolitics in the Foreign Office: British Representations of Argentina 1945-1961. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 19: 273-290.

Dodds, K. and Sidaway, J.D. 2004. Halford Mackinder and the ‘Geographical Pivot of History’: A Cententnial Retrospective. The Geographical Journal 170:292-297. Stable URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.0016-7398.2004.00131.x/abs/.

Edwards, Michael, Hulme, David and Wallace, Tina. 1999. NGOs in a Global Future: Marrying Local Delivery to Worldwide Leverage. Public Administration and Development 19:117-136. Stable URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-162X(199905)19:2<117::AID-PAD70>3.0.CO;2-S.

Eisenstein, Zillah. 1997. Women’s Publics and the Search for New Democracies. Feminist Review 57:140-167.

Enterline, A. J. 1998. Regime Changes, Neighborhoods, and Interstate Conflict, 1816-1992. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 42:804-829.

Erb, Guy F. 1977. “North-South” Negotiations. Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science 32: 106-119.

Evans, Carolyn L. 2003. The Economic Significance of National Border Effects. The American Economic Review 93:1291-1312.

Fisher, Charles A. 1971. Containing China? II. Concepts and Applications of Containment. The Geographical Journal 137: 281-310.

Fox, William T. R. 1948. American Foreign Policy and the Western European Rimland. Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science 22: 71-78.
Freedom House. 2006. Table of Independent Countries. Freedom in the World 2006. Stable URL: http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/Chart33File36.pdf.

Froehling, Oliver. 1997. The Cyberspace “War of Ink and Internet” in Chiapas, Mexico. Geographical Review 87: 291-307.

Geldart, Carol, and Lyon, Peter. 1980-1981. The Group of 77: A Perspective View. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) Vol. 57: 79-101.

Gilbert, E. W., and Parker, W.H. 1969. Mackinder’s Democratic Ideals and Reality after Fifty Years. The Geographical Journal 135:228-231.

Goldstein, Joshua S., Huang, Xiaoming, and Akan, Burcu. 1997. Energy in the World Economy, 1950-1992. International Studies Quarterly 41: 241-266.

Griswold, A. Whitney. 1940. The Influence of History Upon Sea Power: A Comment on American Naval Policy. The Journal of the American Military Institute 4: 1-7.

Guins, George C. 1964, Challenge to the Soviets in Asia and Africa. Russian Review 23:341-351.
Hall, Arthur R. 1955. Mackinder and the Course of Events. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 45:109-126.

Harkavy, R. 2001. Strategic Geography and the Greater Middle East. Naval War College Review August 54:37-54. Stable URL: http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/review/2001/autumn/pdfs/art2-au1.pdf.

Hayes, Denis. 1975. Solar Power in the Middle East. Science 188: 1261.

Herod, Andrew. 2001. New Developments in Trade Union Internationalism, Labor Internationalism and the Contradictions of Globalization: Or, Why the Local is Sometimes Still Important in a Global Economy. Antipode 33:407. Stable URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/1467-8330.00191/abs/.

Hentz, James J. 1997. Economic Stagnation in Sub-Sahara Africa and Breaking the “Implicit Bargain”. Issue: A Journal of Opinion 25: 32-34.

Holm, Hans-Henrik. 1990. The End of the Third World?. Journal of Peace Research 27: 1-7.

Horowitz, Irving Louis. 1985-1986. The “Rashomon” Effect: Ideological Proclivities and Political Dilemmas of the International Monetary Fund. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 27: 37-55.

Hooson, David J.M. 1962. A New Soviet Heartland? The Geographical Journal 128:19-29.

Ignatius, David. 2004, December 14. Winning a War for the Disconnected. Washington Post, p. A27. Stable URL: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A62351-2004Dec13.html.

Ignatius, David. 2005, May 18. A Quiet Transformation. Washington Post, p. A17. Stable URL: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/17/AR2005051701327.html.

Israel, Jerry. 1978. Rule Americana: America Rules the Waves. Reviews in American History 6:370-372.
Karsten, Peter. 1971. The Nature of “Influence”: Roosevelt, Mahan and the Concept of Sea Power. American Quarterly 23: 585-600.

Kaufman, Stuart J. 1999. Approaches to Global Politics in the Twenty-First Century: A Review Essay. International Studies Review 1: 193-221.

Kearns, Gerry. 1997. The Imperial Subject: Geography and Travel in the Work of Mary Kingsley and Halford Mackinder. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 22:450-472.

Keddie, Nikki R. 1998. The New Religious Politics: Where, When, and Why Do “Fundamentalisms” Appear?. Comparative Studies in Society and History 40: 696-723.

Kiss, George. 1942. Political Geography into Geopolitics: Recent Trends in Germany. Geographical Review 32: 632-645.

Kristof, L. K. D. 1983. Perspective on Ratzel’s Political Geography. The American Political Science Review 79:1178-1179.

LaFeber, Walter. A Note on the “Mercantilistic Imperialism” of Alfred Thayer Mahan. The Mississippi Valley Historical Review 48:674-685.

Lennox, Malissia. 1993. Refugees, Racism, and Reparations: A Crique of the United States’ Haitian Immigration Policy. Stanford Law Review 45:687-724.

Mayell, Peter. 2004. Beyond the ‘Outer Crescent’: The Mackinder Century in New Zealand Politics. The Geographical Journal 170:386. Stable URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.0016-7398.2004.00138.x.

Mazrui, Ali A. 2002. Brain Drain between Counterterrorism and Globalization. African Issues 30: 86-89.

Mazzetti, Mark. 2003, October 6. Pax Americana: Dispatched to Distant Outposts, U.S. Forces Confront the Perils of an Unruly World. U.S. News & World Report. Stable URL: http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/media/PaxAm.htm.

Meinig, Donald W. 1956. Heartland and Rimland in Eurasian History. The Western Political Quarterly 9: 553-569.

Menon, Rajan. 1995. In the Shadow of the Bear: Security in Post-Soviet Central Asia. International Security 20: 149-181.

Midlarsky, Manu I. 1995. Environmental Influences on Democracy: Aridity, Warfare, and a Reversal of the Causal Arrow. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 39:224-262.

Moon, Graham, and Brown, Tim. 2000. Governmentality and the Spatialized Discourse of Policy: The Consolidation of the Post-1989 NHS Reforms. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 25: 65-76.

Moxham, Ben. 2003. The US Military: Brining Hope “to Every Corner of the World.” Focus on the Global South. Stable URL: http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/2003/1119bringing.htm.

Niva, Steve. Alternatives to Neolibralism. Middle East Report 210:16.
Oneal, John R. and Bryan, Anna Lillian. The Rally ‘Round the Flag Effect in U.S. Foreign Policy Crises, 1950-1985. Political Behavior 17:379-401.

Osterud, Oyvind. 1988. The Uses and Abuses of Geopolitics. Journal of Peace Research 25:191-1999.

Owens, Mackubin T. 2004. Review of The Pentagon’s New Map. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland University. Stable URL: http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/oped/owens/04/newmap.html.

Parker, Geoffrey. 1998. Geopolitics: Past, Present, and Future. Washington, DC: Pinter.

Partem, Michael Greenfield. 1983. The Buffer System in International Relations. The Journal of Conflict Resolution 27:3-26.

Pletsch, Carl E. 1981. The Three Worlds, or the Division of Social Scientific Labor, Circa 1950-1975. Comparative Studies in Society and History 23: 565-590.

Richards, Chet. 2005. Neither Shall the Sword: Conflict in the Years Ahead. Washington, DC: Center for Defense Information.

Roberts, Susan, Secor, Anna and Sparke, Matthew. Neoliberal Geopolitics. Antipode 35: 886-897. Stable URL: http://faculty.washington.edu/sparke/neoliberalgeopolitics.pdf.

Russell, W. H. 1956. Mahan’s Doctrine and the Air Age. Military Affairs 20: 227-229.

Sayigh, Yezid. 1991. The Gulf Crisis: Why the Arab Regional Order Failed. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) Vol. 67: 487-507.

Semmel, Bernard. 1958. Sir Halford Mackinder: Theorist of Imperialism. The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science 24:554-561.

Shulman, Mark R. 1998. Inventing Grand Strategy and Teaching Command: The Classic Works of Alfred Thayer Mahan Reconsidered. The Journal of Military History 62:407-408.

Sidaway, James Derrick, and Pryke, Michael. 2000. The Strange Geographies of ‘Emerging Markets’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 25: 187-201.

Simon, David. 1996. Restructuring the Local State in Post-Apartheid Cities: Namibian Experience and Lessons for South Africa. African Affairs 95: 51-84.

Slater, David. 1993. The Geopolitical Imagination and the Enframing of Development Theory. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 18: 419-437.

Slater, David. 1994. Reimagining the Geopolitics of Development: Continuing the Dialogue. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 19: 233-238.

Smith, Graham. 1999. The Masks of Proteus: Russia, Geopolitical Shift and the New Eurasianism. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 24: 481-494.

Smith, Jackie. 2000. Globalizing Resistance: The Battle of Seattle and the Future of Social Movements. Mobilization: An International Journal 6:1-19. Stable URL:

Smith, Tony. 1977. Changing Configurations of Power in North-South Relations since 1946. International Organization 31: 1-27.

Sparke, Matthew. 1998. A Map that Roared and an Original Atlas: Canada, Cartography, and the Narration of Nation. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 88: 463-495.

Spkyman, Nicholas J. 1938. Geography and Foreign Policy, I. The American Political Science Review 32:28-50.

Tunander, Ola. 2005. Swedish Geopolitics: From Rudolf Kjellen to a Swedish ‘Dual State’. Geopolitics 10:546-566. Stable URL: http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/link.asp?id=m34u298p3373hu94.

Tuathail, Gearoid O., and Luke, Timothy W. 1994. Present at the (Dis)Integration: Deterritorialization and Reterritorialization in the New Wor(l)d Order. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84: 381-398.

Tuathail, Gearoid O. 1994. Problematizing Geopolitics: Survey, Statesmanship and Strategy. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 19: 259-272.

Tuathail, Gearoid O. 1998. The Geopolitics Reader. New York: Taylor & Francis Books.

Tuathail, Gearoid O. 2000. The Postmodern Geopolitical Condition: States, Statecraft, and Security at the Millennium. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90: 166-178.

Tyner, James. 1999. The Geopolitics of Eugenics and the Exclusion of Philippine Immigrants from the United States. The Geographical Review, Vol. 89:. Stable URL: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&se=gglsc&d=5001868409.

Tuson, Ann Scott Tyson. 2005, October 19. A Brain Pentagon Wants to Pick: Despite Controversy, Strategist is Tapped as Valuable Resource. Washington Post, p. A19. Stable URL: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/18/AR2005101801461.html

Tyson, Brady, and Said, Abdul Aziz. 1993. Human Rights: A Forgotten Victim of the Cold War. Human Rights Quarterly 15: 589-604.

Unstead, J.F. 1949. H. J. Mackinder and the New Geography. The Geographical Journal, Vol. 113:47-57.

Vanhanen, Tatu. 2000. A New Dataset for Measuring Democracy, 1810-1998. Journal of Peace Research 37:251-265.

Venier, Pascal. 2004. The Geographical Pivot of History and Early Twentieth Century Geopolitical Culture. The Geographical Journal 170:330. Stable URL: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111/j.0016-7398.2004.00134.x/full/.

Wanandi, Jusuf. 1983. Pacific Economic Cooperation: An Indonesian View. Asian Survey 23: 1271-1280.

Wells, Samuel F. Jr. 1981. The Mitterrand Challenge. Foreign Policy 44. (Autumn: 57-69.

Weber, S. and Bussell, J. 2005. Will Information Technology Reshape the North-South Asymmetry of Power in the Global Political Economy? Studies in Comparative International Development 40:62-84. Stable URL: http://socs.berkeley.edu/~tboas/weber.pdf.

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Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 11, Results

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md
Nation Brutal Nasty Poor Sol. Short IV
OCNCG -0.16 0.47 0.73 0.64 0.43 0.65
CG -0.14 0.46 0.68 0.56 0.41 0.61
G77 -0.04 0.52 0.5 0.45 0.51 0.65
G2277 -0.09 0.48 0.47 0.42 0.51 0.61
AfroIslam 0.05 0.6 0.34 0.31 0.63 0.67
Nalign – 2 0.01 0.58 0.43 0.4 0.55 0.67
Nalign – 3 0.001 0.57 0.41 0.38 0.56 0.66
LDC – 2 -0.08 0.31 0.55 0.44 0.41 0.49
LDC – 3 -0.08 0.38 0.54 0.4 0.62 0.59
Worlds -0.14 0.42 0.7 0.59 0.48 0.64


The tables you see above are the coefficients of correlations for the models described in this series to the measures Barnett describes. This study looked at the population of all states, not a sample of states, so the margin of error is +/-0%. These numbers are completely internally valid — they describe carefully derived measures. The difference between them is significant. However, the greater question of whether or not the correct measures were used is a different subject.

Chirol from Coming Anarchy suggested that I look at the Four Flows instead of brutality, nastiness, etc. It may be that I misconstrued what Barnett meant in the passages of Pentagon’s New Map where he gives the definitions.

Regardless of the meaning of these numbers, a short discussion of the results is included below.

Brutality. This was the biggest surprise. For most measures, including Barnett’s Core-Gap and Old Core – New Core – Gap, brutality decreases in the Core. This is because the University of Maryland’s ICBP database that I used measures the countries involved in wars. Besides ignoring some sub-state conflicts, the project would this could the Kosovo War as mostly a “Core” war. After all, nearly all the combatants — America, England, etc, – are Core states.

Still, the Afroislamic Gap is the best predictor of brutality. Afromuslim countries go to war more often than any other states. The worst predictor was the Old Core – New Core – Gap model.

Nastiness. Measured through lack of political freedoms and human rights, Afromuslim states fail again. The worst measure is merely defining Lesser Developed Countries (LDCs) as the Gap.

Poverty. Here, Barnett’s economic determinist model shines through. The very best measure is Old Core – New Core – Gap, and the second best is a more general Core – Gap. Interestingly, here the Afroislam model scored the worst — a reversal of our experience with Brutality — though here at least, both show a positive correlation between being in a “Gap” and general badness.

Solitude. I modified Barnett’s measure, from internet hosts in a country to internet hosts per capita. It would make little sense to call a very populous state the most connected state if only a small fraction of its population had access to the internet. The results here are the similar to the ones for poverty — Old Core – New Core – Gap the best gauge, Afroislam the worst. Interestingly, here a 1st, 2nd, and 3rd world model of the globe does better than Barnett’s simpler Core-Gap model.

Shortness. Want to die early? Move to an African or Islamic country. Only looking at the world from t he point of view of Developed — Lesser Developed — Least Developed states comes close to this. The very worst predictor is Barnett’s Core – Gap model, though Barnett’s Old Core – New Core – Gap model is only slightly better.

All in All. Averaging these scores together, the AfroIslam model remains the best for describing the Hobbesian states we fight against and for. All in all, however, the ups in one Hobbesian measure seam to compensate for the downs in others, making all of these pretty good. Still, this shows a danger of just looking at an agregate measure instead of more specific measures.

A Note on the Result. I’m not a statistician. I have advanced training in predicate calculus and relational algebra, but the pseudo-math of statistics is not my forte. I would much rather have my analysis short to pieces than for it to just sit here. Likewise, I used an extremely simple tool to run these numbers.

Please, correct me. Show me where I am wrong. And then, let’s shrink the Gap — Afroislamic or not.


Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 10, Limitations and Conclusion

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

Halford Mackinder said that “every century has its own geographical perspective,” and it may even be true that “every century has its own geographical stereotype” (Meinig 1956:553). Geopolitical analysis is necessarily limited to some conception of the world. This research design seeks to test a geopolitical view of the present world. It is not a test throughout time. It makes no claim to be. That makes this study no less valuable.


The effects of this study depend on the truth or falsity of the hypothesis. In each case, the most interesting results would be if the hypothesis is false.

A failure of the first hypothesis — that is, negative or no correlations for the binary Core-Gap value — is very unlikely. It is doubtful that life in in the “Core” is more brutal, nastier, shorter, poorer, and more solitary than life in the Gap. However, given the broad definition of “Core” here, negative or no correlation for at least some of the variables is possible. This raises a more delicate point: if just one of the categories has a negative correlation with the Core-Gap variable, there will be a temptation to simply say it was poorly defined. Regardless of the ultimate conclusion, though, such a result would pave the way to future research.

In general, the same conclusions will hold true if hypothesis two is demonstrated false. However, a negative results here would be somewhat less surprising. If in general “new core” states are more livable than old core states, which seems somewhat reasonable (is “Old Core” Spain truly better than “New Core” South Korea?), this would skew the results.

Even if hypothesis one and two hold true, however, the utility of Barnett’s “new map” will be undermined if hypothesis three or four are shown to be negative. If for instance a geopolitical categorization based on the G77 or the Nonaligned movement are more accurate that Barnett’s concept, then PNM’s goal as a grand strategy for the United States is unlikely to be fulfilled. After all, why go with something new and strange when something old and familiar does the job better? Likewise, if defining the Gap simply as the Organization of the Islamic Conferences and the African Union gives better values than Barnett’s current summary, This is not just an academic concern, but may in turn effect base closings and even how and when to go to war.

If disproving the third and fourth hypotheses would be the most interesting, disproving the fifth would be the most boring. The New Core – Old Core divide naturally seems somewhat artificial, leaving Australia and New Zealand in the “new” world while confining Spain and Greece to the “Old.”

On the flip side, finding all five of the hypotheses true would help validate Barnett’s claims. More work would have to be done. After all, a study that uses the data suggested by the theorist might be suspect, but it would be a good first step.


Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 9, Methods and Operationalizations

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

Poverty will be measured by GDP per capita, measured by purchasing power parity (CIA 2006c). Estimates are recent, with most being from 2004 or 2005. The information is listed in US Dollars. My study will scale GDP per capita so that poorest value is 0 and the richest value is 1. For each state, it’s value will be calculated by taking the difference between that state’s value and the lowest state’s value, divided by the difference between the highest state’s value and the lowest state’s value. The logic to read in and scale this data is included in the appendix, particularly in the function scaleData().


Nastiness will be measured by a state’s Freedom in the World measure (Freedom House 2006). Freedom House uses two 7-point scales for political freedoms and civil rights. The most repressive, and thus “nastiest,” regimes would score a 7 on both counts, while the least nasty would score 1. This study will take the mean of the two values and scale them, with the most free state having a score of “1” and the least free state having a score of “0.” The logic to read in and scale this data is included in the appendix.

Shortness will be measured by life expectancy (CIA 2006d). Estimates are recent, with all dating from 2006. The information is listed in years. The study will scale life expectancy so that shortest value is “0” and the longest value is “1.” The logic to read in and scale this data is included in the appendix.

Brutality will be calculated from the International Crisis Behavior project (CIDCM 2006). Wars which have been fought at least in part after 1992 will be considered. Wars are considered dyadic. Brutality will be measured as the sum of wars per year. For example, a state that is involved in two wars each against two states that each last two years would have a brutality score of “8.” The study will then scale the scores, with the least brutal state having a score of 0 and the most “brutal” state having a score of 1. The logic to read and scale this data is included in the appendix.

Solitariness will be measured by the number of Internet hosts in a country per capita. This will be derived from two different measures: the number of Internet hosts per country divided by each country’s population (CIA 2006b; CIA 2006e). The population of Internet hosts and people are both estimated down to individual hosts and persons. All estimates of Internet hosts date form 2005 while all estimates of population date are for July 2006. The result will then be scaled, with the state with the highest number of Internet hosts per capita as “1,” and the state with the lowest number as “0.” The logic to read and scale this data is included in the appendix.

The model will contain eight dependent variables, with two of them relating directly to Barnett’s “new map.” All will be ordinal values, with the lowest values referring to the Gap (or its supposed equivalent), and the highest values referring to the Functioning Core (or its supposed equivalent). Three of the variables will have two possible variables, while the other five will have three.

The first dependent variables look at are Barnett’s models. Barnett has described his cartography in two different ways: as comprising a “Functioning Core” and a “Non-Integrating Gap,” as well as of comprising an “Old Core,” a “New Core,” and the “Gap.” The difference is that the more detailed model separates peripheral or newly developed economies — Argentina, South Africa, South Korea, etc. – from the Cold War pillars of North America, Western Europe, and Japan. The binary variable will rate the Gap as 0 and the Core as 1. The ternary variable will rate the Gap as 0, the New Core as 1, and the Old Core as 2.

As Barnett’s PNM model is essentially a critical North-South view of the world, most of the other dependent variables for rival hypotheses will be taken from other concepts that are analogous to the Global South – the Non-Aligned Movement and the Third World (Holm 1990:2). Additionally, one more will be added to address a cultural and race based criticism of Barnett’s map.

800px-Map_Non-Aligned_Movement_md
The Nonaligned Movement

The next four variables relate to an International Organizational definition of the global south. It relies on two NGOs, the G77 and the G24. The G77 is an organization of undeveloped countries, and the G24 is its executive steering committee. G77 nations are assumed to be similar to Barnett’s “Gap,” while G24 to his “New Core.” Therefore, the binary variable for this shall map the G77 to 0 and the rest of the world to 1. The ternary variable will rate nations only in the G77 as 0, states in the G77 and G24 as 1, and all other states as 2. Dependent variables for the Non-Aligned Movement and its executive steering committee, the G-15, will be calculated in the same fashion. The G77 and the Nonaligned Movement are of about the same age, though the G77 traditionally has a broader membership (Geldart and Lyon 1980-1981:80), so it makes sense to examine both of these alternatives.

g77_map_md
The Group of Seventy-Seven

An “international group” perspective will be used to divide countries into Least Developed Nations, Less Developed Nations, and the rest of the world (CIAa 2006a). The measures of Least Developed Countries (LLDCs) and Less Developed Countries (LDCs) originate at the United Nations. The distinction is meant to separate countries which have a reasonable chance of developing with those facing severe structural maladies (Horowitz 1985-1986:47).The same ternary and binary divisions will be used for these are as predicted. When viewed binarily, LLDc and LDCs will both be valued at 0, with other states valued at 1. Viewed as ternary, LLDCs will have the value of 0, LDCs of 1, and all other states of 2.

The term Global South originated in part as a reaction against the fading “Third World” model that was born in the 1950s. This model will use this model, taking as its definition of “worlds” from a map. Formerly and currently Communist states, from Poland to Vietnam, are in the Second World and labeled “2.” The United States and other “free” states are in the First World and labeled 1. The rest of the world, which closely matches traditional views of the Global South, is measured at 3.
One more possible dependent variable, this one binary, will calculated. This addresses the concern that the “new map” is essentially just an encirclement of Africa and majority Muslim states, with the rest of the “Gap” (the Caribbean, South-East Asia, etc) as more-or-less superfluous. An earlier version of Barnett’s work made this explicit, “with only Central Asia, the Middle East, and Africa trapped on the outside, noses pressed to the glass” (Barnett 2004:109). This variable will label as “0” any state in either the Organization of Islamic States or the African Union, and label all other states as 1. The often culturally destructive actions of newly independent African states (Beckstrom 1974:698) and their stagnating economies (Hentz 1997:32), as well as increasing instability through much of the Arab (Sayigh 1991:487) and Muslim (Menon 1995:154) world, argue that this alternative is a reasonable one.

The following specific predictions are made:

1.The Core-Gap binary variable will have have a positive correlation to each of the individual variables.
2.The Old-Core-New-Core-Gap ternary variable will have a positive correlation to each of the independent variables.
3.The Core-Gap binary variable will have a higher correlation to each of the independent variables than any of the other binary dependent variables.
4.The Old-Core-New-Core-Gap ternary variable will have a higher correlation to each of the independent variables than any of the other ternary dependent variables.
5.The Old Core-New Core-Gap ternary variable will have a higher correlation to each of the independent variables than the Core-Gap binary variable.


Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 8, The Research Design

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

Yet in spite of the potential consequences of Barnett’s work, little has been done to test it. For instance, do the measures he gives for the “Gap” actually correlate with being in the Gap? Does another accepted model work better?


This model predicts that Barnett’s more granular summary, divided into the Old Core, New Core, and Gap, is both positive for each of the measures he defines as well as superior to alternate ternary models of the Global South. Likewise, this model predicts that his simpler version, with a united Core and the Gap, is both positive for each of those measures as well as superior to alternate binary measures. Last, this paper predicts that the more granular version is superior on these same counts to the less granular one.

This model will contain five independent variables, and a sixth which is a composite of the five. The five independent variables are the measures of poverty, nastiness, shortness, brutality, and solitariness previously described. All independent variables will come form Barnett’s first measurement of the Gap.

All data for this study will come from the CIA’s World Factbook, Freedom House’s Freedom in the World study, or the University of Maryland’s International Crisis Behavior Project. The World Factbook has been used in academic studies down the decades (Evans 2003:1311; Lennox 1993:705; Partem 1983:8). Freedom House is a leader in measuring democratic rights in countries, and is a standard on which other measures are judged (Davenport and Armstrong 2004 541; Vanhanen 2000 251). The University of Maryland’s database is also a leading statistical resource, but of war instead of rights (Caprioli and Boyer 2001 504; Oneal and Bryan 1995 380).


Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 7, The Pentagon’s New Map

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

Thomas P.M. Barnett defines the “non-integrating gap” as those “regions of the world that are largely disconnected from the global economy and the rule set that defines its stability” (T. Barnett 2004:xvii-xviii). Immediately he gives it a geographic description, “today, the non-integrating gap is made up of the Caribbean Rim, Andean South America, virtually all of Africa, portions of the Balkans the Caucasus, Central Asia, the Middle East, and most of Southeast Asia.” Barnett writes that the “Gap” will be “the expeditionary theater for the U.S. military in the 21st century” (T Barnett 2003) of “failed states and feral cities” (T. Barnett 2004:151). The rest of the world, the “Functioning Core,” is in turn split “into the Old Core, anchored by America, Europe, and Japan; and the New Core, whose leading pillars are China, India, Brazil and Russia” (T. Barnett 2005:32).

pentagons_new_map_md
This graphic originally contained the following in its caption“Problem areas requiring American attention (outlined) are, in the author’s analysis, called the Gap. Shrinking the Gap is possible only by stopping the ability of terrorist networks to access the Core via the ‘seam states’ that lie along the Gap’s bloody boundaries” (T. Barnett 2003)

Barnett takes the first step towards operationalization an entity that is otherwise just a line drawn on a map (T. Barnett 2004:inside cover). Taking Hobbes as a model, Barnett defines life in the gap as “poor” (low GDP per capita), “nasty” (low levels of political freedom and human rights), “short” (low life expectancy), “brutal” (high levels of war), and “solitary” (few Internet hosts per capita) (T. Barnett 2004:161-165).

Barnett draws from the geopolitical and North-South traditions. Barnett has written this new map is not a “’North-South’ map” (T. Barnett 2004:121) , but the similarity between The Gap and the Global South is striking. The policy implications of this have down criticism to the model (Moxham 2003). “Just as the theories of such geopolitical writers as Sir Halford Mackinder and Nicholas Spykman provided the intellectual underpinnings of US grand strategy during the Cold War,” Barnett’s model is accused of being an intellectual justification of a US grand strategy focusing on the Global South (Owens 2004).

As with Critical Geopolitics, PNM Theory is not just a description of the world but a prescription for the world. It is a model of both existing UN missions and “future hot spots” (Roberts, Secor and Sparke 2003:890). Barnett is “the best known proponent of wide area strategy” and his theory defines “who is ‘good’ and who is not” with the clear implication of widespread preemption (Richards 2005:39-40). PNM Theory, which was was created for the Pentagon in the wake of September 11th (Chaikivsky 2002:163) has already “helped reshape the direction of future military strategy based upon a new map and vision of the world security environment” (Coderre 2003). Barnett’s books (T. Barnett 2004; T. Barnett 2006) and theories are influential inside the Department of Defense (Barone 2005; Ignatius 2005; Mazzetti 2003; Tyson 2005), and senior officers now give presentations incorporating specific PNM concepts (Ignatius 2004).


Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 6, Critical Geopolitics

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

In the early 1990s, the political tilt of Global South discussions led to the emergence of critical geopolitics (Dodds 1994:275). While some have criticized the theory as appearing too soon for a valid “contexualization” of geography (C. Barnett 1995:417) others view critical geopolitics as necessary for explaining the contemporary world (Tuathail and Luke 1994:381).


Critical geopolitics continues the north-south discussion. This may take the form of almost conventional north-south articles, such as between the United States and Cuba (Slater 1994:233) and the spread of dependency theory in Latin America (Slater 1993:420). Critical geopolitics also focuses on environmentalism and people “on the ground” (Brosius 1999: 282). Indeed, it is near to the ground “where problems and issues are far more personalized and less easily generalized” that critical geopolitics provides the best context (Simon 1996:51).

This domain moves beyond traditional state-centered geopolitics (Tuathail 1998:229), in spite of its global level of analysis. Critical geopolitics holds that power is “non-sovereigntist,” “relational,” and “found at work across all scales of social life” (Sparke 465). This is as true for public policies (Moon & Brown 69) as it is for money (Sidaway and Pryke 2000:189), and as true for the public sector as for the private. Such emphasis on the social world echoes Mahan, and his belief on the importance of technology and the economy on the geopolitical world.

Interestingly, critical geopolitics argues that geopolitics itself is a critical field. That is, geopolitics “dominant mode of narration was declarative (‘this is how the world is’) and imperative (‘this is what we must do’)” (Tuathail 2000:166). Recognition of everything, including computer technology (Froehling 1997:293), as a tool of neither liberation or oppression but struggle emphasizes this ends-centered outlook of critical geopolitics. Geopolitics, in other words, is “political from the very outset” (Tuathail 1998:28).


Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Redefining the Gap 5, The North and the South

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

tdaxps_new_map_md

The theory of the Global North and Global South is a new geopolitical perspective. It is a new perspective that divides “the world into two blocs – the industrialized countries of the global North and the poor countries of the South” on the global level of analysis (Goldstein, Huang, and Akan 1997:242). While “Global South” is sometimes used as a synonym for the more familiar “Third World” (Hayes 1975:1261), the end of the Cold War has seen the term “Third World” and the politics behind it fall into disfavor (Pletsch 1981:569).

three_worlds_md
The First, Second, and Third Worlds (Wikipedia Contributors 2006c)

As opposed to earlier theories, the Global South perspective saw America, Europe, and Russia as essentially identical, perhaps each a closely related “’conquering subculture” (Tyson and Said 1993: 602). One way the Northern countries are similar is in their demographic decline relative to Southern states (Demeny 2003:15). Conflict was now seen as essentially or largely between the north and south (Wanandi 1983:1276; Wells 1981:69; Young 1987:392). Wealth also distinguishes the generally prosperous north from an economically deprived south (Niva 1999:16).

Many theorists of the Global South theorists argue that security problems come from the Global South to the Global North. All of the September 11th attackers came from the Global South (Mazuri 2002:86) and the Global South is an incubator for religious fundamentalisms (Keddie 1998:700). This may be exacerbated by an income and wealth divide between the north and the south, such as in international debt instruments (Kaufman 1999:219). Some thinkers have suggested that the Global South has delayed if not prevented Francis Fukuyama’s predicted “end of history” (Baker 1995:8).

Discussion of the Global South has traditionally involved political concerns. These have emphasized the behavior of labor, closely examining the flow of high-skilled persons from the south to the north (Ansah 2002:23) and the technology that allows people to work more efficiently Weber and Bussell 2005:77). Capital has also been discussed, including criticism of the north’s “patterns of consumption” (Edwards, Humle, and Wallace 1999:121) and patterns of investment (Ansley 2001:381) in the south. Land and the environment are also issues, like for example in “efforts to curb World Bank lending for projects that threatened peoples and ecosystems” (J. Smith 2001:4). At times this rises to the level of international diplomacy, with organizations like the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, and others in actual “north-south negotiations” (Erb 1977:109) and occasionally north-south threats (T. Smith 1977:5).

The divide between the Global North and the Global South has been described as both artificial and inevitable. On the artificial side, the disparity between Northern and Southern countries may be a function of different styles of property rights (Chichlinisky 1994:853) or exploitation of the south by the north (Herod 2000:419) . Further, China’s rise has seen the “Global North” spread into the south while uneducated “Northern” workers may face southern-style conditions (Broad and Cavanagh 1995-1996:29). However, many have argued that the divide is so real that even concepts such as equality must not be “exported” from the north to the south, but developed locally (Eisenstein 1997:155).


Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes