Recalling Instruction using Cognition

Internal and External Connections

Means of Encoding

internation connections – relations between conceps in a text — within the info being learned
external connectiosn – relations between new materials and existing knowledge

(students try to learn piecemeal through memorization)

internal connections – building is like databize normalization, like chunking
external connections – are like analogies

“really hard to find similarities and differences: analogies and contraditions, when presented as text instead of diagrams
– think of teaching anatomy – teach bones or the whole skeleton?

Memory Techniques (“tricks,” “mnemonics”)
pegword method – good for learning lists
(but watch for contrasting lists!)
have pegs for numbers (“shoe” for 2, “tree” for 3, etc)
uses external connections and visual imagery (visions increase memorization)
anectodate: trouble is creating new list on the same day (memory interference)
good for memorizing, such as speech points?

Levels of Processing (“Depths of Processing”)
the deeper (the more meaningfully) information is processed, the more it is remembered
(re: meaningful violence? framing in politics?)
so the more you know, the easier to learn more?
(inert knowledge – non-recalled, disconnected knowledge — especially a problem with schoolchildren)

More Mnemonics
First Letter – roy g biv, apstndp, sohcahtoa, etc
Method of Loci (locations): put things in house, similar to pegwords but order can be troublesome
Keyword: emphasis on picture learnings (“pato = duck,” so remember a duck in a pot or wearing a pot) – consequences for kanji?