The power of imagination

Imagination, with insight and initiative, is necessary for life (Boyd, 1992). Without imagination, team cooperation leading to victory is impossible (Boyd, 1986; Osinga, 2007).

The imagination effect, along with the goal-free effect, the worked example effect, the split-attention effect, the redundancy effect, the modality effect, the completion effect, and the variability effect, is one of the main products of cognitive load theory (Sweller, 2004; van gog, et al. 2005).

Imagining tasks can be superior to studying them when the proper mental structurse already exists (Cooper, et al., 2001; Ginns, Chandler, & Sweller, 2003; Kalyuga, et al., 2003; Leahy & Sweller, 2005). The imagionation effect shows itself dual-channel audio and visual instruction, but not visual instruction alone (Tindall-Ford & Sweller, 2006). Likewise, the imagionation effect appears after integrated but not split-attention instructional presentation of materials (Leahy & Sweller, 2004).

What does all this mean? Stay tuned. For now, a bibliography is below.

Boyd, J.R. (1986). Patterns of conflict. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from Defense and the National Interest. Web site
Boyd, J.R. (1992). The conceptual spiral. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from Belisarius. Web site:
Cooper, G., Tindall-Ford, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2001). Learning by imagining. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 7(1), 68-82.
Ginns, P., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). When imagining information is effective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28(2), 229-251.
Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler, P. & Sweller, J. (2003). The expertise reversal effect. Educational Psychologist 38: 23–31.
Leahy, W., & Sweller, J. (2004). Cognitive load and the imagination effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18, 857-875.
Leahy, W. & Sweller, J. (2005). Interactions among the imagination, expertise reversal, and element interactivity effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11(4), 266-276,.
Osinga, F.P.B. (2007). Science, strategy, and war. New York: Routledge.
Sweller, J. (2004). Instructional design consequences of an analogy between evolution by natural selection and human cognitive architecture. Instructional Science, 32, 9-31.
Tinall-Ford, S. & Sweller, J. (2006). Altering the modality of instructions to facilitate imagination: Interactions between the modality and imagination effects. Instructional Science, 34, 343-365.
van Gog, T., Ericsson, K.A., Rikers, R.M.J., & Paas, F. (2005). Instructional design for advanced learners: Establishing connections between the theoretical frameworks of cognitive load and deliberate practice. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(3), 73-81.