Tag Archives: bibliography

Quick & Dirty Literature Review on Students with Learning Disabilities

Like my q&d lit review for the ultimatum game, this post is for my own benefit. If you want something actually interesting dealing with learning, read “Nature and Her Consequences” (part of my series on student nature), or Mark of ZenPundit‘s “Horizontal Thinking at Cooperative Commons” (which links to “Remember Lateral Thinking?). Or even check out my older series on learning — Classroom Democracy, Learning Evolved, and Liberal Education.

Identifying learning disabled students have been troublesome (Rechly, 1996; Scruggs & Mastropieri, 2002), as have been identifying learning-disabled adults (Adelman & Vogel, 1993, 227). Learning disabled students appear to be cluster into language-defecit, visual-deficit, reading-deficit, behavioral-deficit, and unknown defecits (Bender & Golearning disableden, 1990).
Teachers judge high-achieving students, with or without learning disabilities, positively while they view low-performing learnig disabled students less favorably than low-performing, non-learning-disabled students (Meltzer, & Katzir-Cohen, Miller, & Roditi, 2001) though this does not negatively effect l-d social confidence more than that for n-learning disableds (Vaughn & Haager, 1994) . Low-performing learning disabled students also face disproportionate social problems (Nowicki, 2003), though generally l-d boys do not have less friends than non-l-d boys (Bear, Juvonen, & McInerney, 1993). Low-performers are also associated with depression and suicide (Bender, Rosenkrans, & Crane, 1999).
Categorization of teacher-l-d interaction is complex but predictable (Cook, 2004). Likewise, perceived preperation of teachers appears to very, with some classes of teacherse feeling prepared (Guay, 1994) and others believing they are skill enough to adjust cirrcula to meet l-d’s needs (Simmons, Kameenui, & Chard, 1998). Interestingly, teacher preference and peer social status appear to be highly correlated (Garrett & Crump, 1980), perhaps as a result of widespread teacher ignorance of the best strategies in educating l-ds (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1994).
Students with l-d may, especially, in writing, have more self-efficacy than they have skill (Klassen, 2002).
Interestingly, a student’s perception of acceptence by peers correlates with depression only for the learning disabled (Heath & Wiener, 1996).
Still, l-ds generally have more classroom behavior problems than nl-d students (Bender & Golearning disableden, 1988). Some of this may be due to the presense of ADHD in many l-d students (Tabassam & Grainger, 2002; Wiener, 1998).
While milearning disabledly learning disabled students tend to be more isolated than average students, generally mixing does occur: prosocial learning disabled students have prosocial peers, while antisocial learning disablede students have antisocial peers (Pearl et al., 1998). This isolation may involve the fact that l-d students perceive themselves to be less skillful than their peers, while most Children have an exagerated sense of their own skills (Scarpati, Malloy, & Fleming, 1996).
Perceptions of students have been judged through questionaires (Conderman, 1995). This reveals that beliefs about learning disabled students change with exposure (Kavale & Reese, 1991)
Asking learning-disabled adults to define learning-disable students has been done before (Reiff, Gerber, & Ginsberg, 1993).
More and more learning-disabled students are attending college (Stage & Milne, 1996) and the transition from dependency to independence, of which college is a part, has recently come into focus (Reiff & deFur, 1992). It is possible that the effect learning disabilities increases as time goes on (Bender & Wall, 1994). Students with learning disabilities looking for their first professional job, especially women, are likely to be more indecivie and have lower aspirations (Rojewski, 1996).
Perhaps a better way to view learning disability is as a risk factor, whose effect depends entirely on its interaction with other factors (Morrison & Cosden, 1997). A somber argument against this, however, is that “no intervention has been designed that eliminates the impact of having a disability” (Hocutt, 1996, 77) — a feat which shoulearning disabled be possible if l-d only acts as an interaction effect.
These findings are combined in exciting research that shows that l-ds in college view themselves as more socially accepted than non-l-ds (Cosden & McNamara, 1997) and display higher levels of resilience (Hall, Spruill, & Webster, 2002). Collegiate l-ds are as smart or smarter than the general population, though, which implies low-functioning l-ds may be selecting themselves out (Hughes & Smith, 1990).
Rojewksi states that students “with learning disabilities shoulearning disabled be prepared to deal with chance events and encounters in a purposeful and proactive manner” (1999, 274). The feasibility of this is problematic, however, as social interaction training seems to be only modestly useful (Forness & Kavale, 1996). Explicit problem-solving strategies were used less by learning disabled students than average students or gifted students (Montague & Applegate, 2000).
The effects of modular cognition is unclear. Learning-disability happens in specific domains, and is not global unless it actually occurs in all of the domains (Lyon, 1996). For instance, students who believe that their learning disability is limited in scope do better than those who believe it is nonchanging and global (Rothman & Cosden, 1996). However, a recognition of internal modularity — ascribing success to “luck, intense hard work, well-developed social skills, and perception” can be described as the “imposter syndrome” and can be viewed negatively (Shessel & Reiff, 1999, 312). Transition programs which focus on specific skills, rather than the more domain-general class of all students with -learning disabled, more adequately address the real need (Phelps & Hanley-Maxwell, 1997; Rojewski, 1992). On a more theoretical matter, than understanding of one’s own disability effects school competence but not global self estteem (Cosden, Elliot, Noble, & Kelemen, 1999) makes sene, as competence relates to practice while esteem relates to language,
Place matters for l-ds. Both state and region effects the school services that l-ds receive (McKenzie, 1991).
Peer teaching (Mastropieri, Scruggs, & Graetz, 2003) and assistance are effective processes for increasing learning comprehension among l-d students (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2001) .
Computerized interaction between Children, both l-d and nl-d, has been studied before (Jellison, 2002).

Adelman, P.B. & Vogel, S.A. (1993). Issues in the Employment of Adults with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 16(3): 219-232.
Bear, G.G., Juvonen, J., & McInerney, F. (1993). Self-Perceptions and Peer Relations of Boys with and Boys without Learning Disabilities in an Integrated Setting: A Longitudinal Study. Learning Disability Quarterly 16(2): 127-136.
Bender, W.N. & Golearning disableden, L.B. (1988). Adaptive Behavior of Learning Disabled and Non-Learning Disabled Children. Learning Disability Quarterly 11(1): 55-61.
Bender, W.N. & Golearning disableden, L.B. (1990). Subtypes of Students with Learning Disabilities as Derived from Cognitive, Academic, Behavioral, and Self-Concept Measures. Learning Disability Quarterly 13(3): 183-194.
Bender, W.N., Rosenkrans, C.B., & Crane, M. (1999). Stress, Depression, and Suicide among Students with Learning Disabilities: Assessing the Risk. Learning Disability Quarterly 22(2): 143-156.
Bender, W.N. & Wall, M.E. (1994). Social-Emotional Development of Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 17(4): 323-341.
Conderman, G. (1995). Social Status of Sixth- and Seventh-Grade Students with Learnign Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 18(1): 13-24.
Cook, B.G. (2004). Inclusive Teachers’ Attitudes toward Their Students with Disabilities: A Replication and Extension. The Elementary School Journal 104(4): 307-320.
Cosden, M., Elliot, K., Noble, S., & Kelemen, E. (1999). Self-Understanding and Self-Esteem in Children with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 22(4): 279-290.
Cosden, M.A. & McNamara, J. (1997). Self-Concept and Perceived Social Support among College Students with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 20(1): 2-12.
Forness, S.R. & Kavale, K.A. (1996). Treating Social Skill Deficits in Children with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of the Research. Learning Disability Quarterly 19(1): 2-13.
Garrett, M.K. & Crump, W.D. (1980). Peer Acceptance, Teacher Preference, and Self-Appraisal of Social Status among Learning Disabled Students. Learning Disability Quarterly 3(#): 42-48.
Guay, D.M. (1994). Students with Disabilities in the Art Classroom: How Prepared Are We?. Studies in Art Education 36(1): 44-56.
Hall, C.W., Spruill, K.L., & Webster. R. E. (2002). Motivational and Attitudinal Factors in College Students with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 25(2): 79-86.
Heath, N.L. & Wiener, J. (1996). Depression and Nonacademic Self-Perceptions in Children with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 19(1): 34-44.
Hocutt, A.M. (1996). Effectiveness of Special Education: Is Placement the Critical Factor?. The Future of Children 6(1): 77-102.
Hughes, C.A. & Smith, J.O. (1990). Cognitive and Academic Performance of College Students with Learning Disabilities: A Synthesis of the Literature. Learning Disability Quarterly 13(1): 66-79.
Jellison, J.A. (2002). On-Task Participation of Typical Students Close to and Away from Classmates with Disabilities in an Elementary Music Classroom. Journal of Research in Music Education 50(4): 343-355.
Kavale, K.A. & Reese. J.H. (1991). Teacher Beliefs and Perceptions about Learning Disabilities: A Survey of Iowa Practitioners. Learning Disability Quarterly 14(2): 141-160.
Klassen, R. (2002). A Question of Calibration: A Review of the Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 25(2): 88-102.
Lyon, G.R. (1996). Learning Disabilities. The Future of Children 6(1): 54-76.
Mastropieri, M.A. & Scruggs, T.E. (2001). Promoting Inclusion in Secondary Classrooms. Learning Disability Quarterly 24(4): 265-274.
Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., & Graetz, J.E. (2003). Reading Comprehension Instruction for Secondary Students: Challenges for Struggling Students and Teachers”>. Learning Disability Quarterly 26(2): 103-116.
McKenzie, R.G. (1991). Content Area Instruction Delivered by Secondary Learning Disabilities Teachers: A National Survey. Learning Disability Quarterly 14(2): 115-122.
Meltzer, L., Katzir-Cohen, T., Miller, L., & Roditi, B. (2001). The Impact of Effort and Strategy Use on Academic Performance: Student and Teacher Perceptions. Learning Disability Quarterly 24(2): 85-98.
Montague, M. & Applegate, B. (2000). Middle School Students’ Perceptions, Persistence, and Performance in Mathematical Problem Solving. Learning Disability Quarterly 23(3): 215-227.
Morrison, G.M. & Cosden, M.A. (1997). Risk, Resilience, and Adjustment of Individuals with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 20(1): 43-60.
Nowicki, E.A. (2003). A Meta-Analysis of the Social Competence of Children with Learning Disabilities Compared to Classmates of Low and Average to High Achievement. Learning Disability Quarterly 26(3): 171-188.
Pearl, R., et al. (1998). The Social Integration of Students with Milearning disabled Disabilities in General Education Classrooms: Peer Group Membership and Peer-Assessed Social Behavior. The Elementary School Journal 99(2): 167-185.
Phelps, L.A. & Hanley-Maxwell, C. (1997). School-to-Work Transitions for Youth with Disabilities: A Review of Outcomes and Practices. Review of Educational Research 67(2): 197-226.
Reiff, H.B. & deFur, S. (1992). Definitions of Learning Disabilities from Adults with Learning Disabilities: The Insiders’ Perspectives. Learning Disability Quarterly 16(2): 114-125.
Reschly, D.J. (1996). Identification and Assessment of Students with Disabilities. The Future of Children 6(1): 40-53.
Rojewski, J.W. (1992). Key Components of Model Transition Services for Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 15(2): 135-150.
Rojewski, J.W. (1996). Occupational Aspirations and Early Career-Choice Patterns of Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 19(2): 99-116.
Rojewski, J.W. (1999). The Role of Chance in the Career Development of Individuals with Learning Disabilities Learning Disability Quarterly 22(4): 257-278.
Rothman, H.R. & Cosden, M. (1995). The Relationship between Self-Perception of a Learning Disability and Achievement, Self-Concept and Social Support. Learning Disability Quarterly 18(3): 203-212.
Scarpati, S., Malloy, T.E., & Fleming, R. (1996). Interpersonal Perception of Skill Efficacy and Behavioral Control of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: A Social Relations Approach. Learning Disability Quarterly 19(1): 15-22.
Scruggs, T.E. & Mastropieri, M.A. (1994). Successful Mainstreaming in Elementary Science Classes: A Qualitative Study of Three Reputational Cases. American Educational Research Journal 31(4): 785-811.
Scruggs, T.E. & Mastropieri, M.A. (2002). On Babies and Bathwater: Addressing the Problems of Identification of Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly 25(3): 155-168.
Shessel, I. & Reiff, H.B. (1999). Experiences of Adults with Learning Disabilities: Positive and Negative Impacts and Outcomes. Learning Disability Quarterly 22(4): 305-316.
Simmons, D.C., Kameenui, E.J., & Chard, D.J. (1998). General Education Teachers’ Assumptions about Learning and Students with Learning Disabilities: Design-of-Instruction Analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly 21(1): 6-21.
Stage, F.K. & Milne, N.V. (1996). Invisible Scholars: Students with Learning Disabilities. The Journal of Higher Education 67(4): 426-445.
Tabassam, W., & Grainger, J. (2002). Self-Concept, Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Students with Learning Disabilities with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Learning Disability Quarterly 25(2): 141-151.
Vaughn, S. & Haager, D. (1994). Social Competence as a Multifaceted Construct: How Do Students with Learning Disabilities Fare?. Learning Disability Quarterly 17(4): 253-266.
Weiner, J. (1998). The Psychiatric Morbidity Hypothesis: A Response to San Miguel, Forness, and Kavale. Learning Disability Quarterly 21(3): 195-201.

Quick & Dirty Literature Review for the Ultimatum Game

Nothing particularly interesting. Merely a rough draft, using all new (to me) sources, of the nature of the ultimatum bargaining game. I presume that in an expanded and improved form this will re-appear, but for now I am posting it for my own reference.

Read on only if you’re very interested, or very bored.

Research has been done with gameplay and learning disabled students, such as autistics (Sally & Hill, 2006). It also also shown how attractive people both receive higher shares and are expected to give more (Solnick & Schweister, 1999), and likewise how being participants artificially divded into high and low status groups treat each other differently (Ball and Eckel, 1996), It has even be shown how research itself is a type of ultimatum game (Bonetti, 1998).

At least among some cultural groups, adolescents are more generous than adults (Hoffmann & Tee, 2006). Relatedly, moral reasoning in game play increases in early adolescence — between the ages of 11 and 13 (Takezawa, Gummerum, & Keller, 2006). Reasoning takes ability into account. For instance, players act as if higher-skill players should earn more, but lower-skill players should not be expected to give as much (Ruffle 1998).

People use different strategies while playing the ultimatum game. Researchers in Russia observed that play-types seem to split into players who want at least a fair outcome for themselves and those who want a fair outcome for both players (Bahry & Wilson, 2006). Another study observed that players seem to be split into those who are sensitive to other’s injustice to them, to injustice against others, and unjust profiting (Fetchenhauer & Huang, 2004). An unfair action is more likely to be perceived to be injust if it was intentional as opposed to unintentional (Kagel, Kim, & Moser, 1996).

Game play also varies across type of game. For instance, players who maximize for expected reward may behave fairly in ultimatum games but unfairly in dictator games (Haselhuhn & Mellers, 2005) and behave more fairly when making one decision at a time than many decisions simultaneously (Bazerman, White, & Lowenstein, 1995). Similarly, behavior in the ultimatum game changes if the actions are described in terms of an everyday social interaction rather than as straight-forward bargaining (Larrick & Blount, 1997).

Still, game performance is not static. Behavior in the ultimatum game is influenced by norms of a people (Henrich, et al., 2005) and even a workplace (Kay, Wheeler, Bagh, & Ross, 2004). Knowledge about theoretical performance maximizing behavior changes performance (Lusk & Hudson, 2004), as does group decision making (which appears to improve rational behavior) (Robert & Carnevale, 1997). Likewise, chaotic conditions make it harder to learn how to maximize performance for responders than for proposers (Gale, Binmore, & Samuelson, 1995).

Perceptions of distributive justice are important (Humprey, Ellis, Conlon, & Tinsley, 2004) as is honesty (Croson, Boles, & Murnighan, 2003). As feelings of guilty are also important (Ketelaar & Au, 2003). Thus, it is not surprising that social awareness and thus awareness of would-be fair outcomes changes behavior, too (Handgraaf, Dijk, Wilke, & Vermunt, 2003). Some of the consequcnes of this are nonintuitive: for instance, it can be better to play an economic game from a powerless position, and this appears to cause the other player to be more concerned for your welfare (van Dijk & Vermunt, 2000). Similarly, changing the relative power of the players does not substantially alter play performance (Weg & Smith, 1993).

Reciprocity in playing games means rewarding kind actions and punishing bad ones (Falk & Fischbacher, 2006). A similar concept, altruism in the ultimatum game has been observed in among the Nigerian Igos (Gowdy, Iorgulescu, & Onyweiwu, 2003). American lawyers, explaining decisions they had made, also listed fairness as a greater cause of their actions than envy or altruism-as-such (Bethwaite & Tompkinson, 1996).

The uttimatum game has also been studied through computer simulations. Adaptive algorithms can yield in-game behavior similar to that observed in humans (Calderon & Zarama, 2006). The computer programs show how fairness can evolve if players are generally able to know how the other agent has played in the past (Nowak, Page, & Sigmund, 2000).

The connection to game-play excellence with creativity is worth considering. Stubbornness and persistence are associated in computer simulations with success, but so is the less-well-regarded attitude of capriciousness (Napel, 2003). General personality traits, such as independence and tough-mindedness, are also important (Brandstatter & Konigstein, 2001);

Explicit beliefs matter, as well. An interaction between fair beliefs and self-interested explained begaining behavior in both Japan and the United States (Buchan, Croson, Johnson, & Iacobucci, 2004).
Technical measuring devises have been used to study ultimatum game behavior. For instance, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortext (van ‘t Wout, Kahn, Sanfey, & Aleman, 2005) among other brain areas (Camerer, 2003).

The ultimatum game has been manipulated to create new games before. It has been changes to minimize the outcome of the proposing player (Gneezy, Haruvy, & Roth, 2003) as well as to incorporate elections (Sulkin & Simon, 2001) or democratic committe-style decision making (Messick, Moore, & Bazerman, 1997). Guth, Huck, and Muller altered it to prevent equal splits, and observed that proposed divisions decreased fair offers more than they expected (2001). Likewise, by reducing the size of the pie while decisions are being made, different choices are made (Suleiman, 1996). Similarly, when a rejection does not lead to all getting zero, but other predetermined positive figures, game play changes as well (Knez & Camerer, 1995). Further, when a third player is made completely dependent on the receiver player, it was found that the giving power is more generous and the receiving power less protective against exploitation (Oppewal & Tougareva, 1992).

A practical question is how the stakes of the game change behavior, and this is not nailed down yet. Increased stakes do seem to make subjects more pliant toward small rewards, but changing the stake size does not (Munier & Zaharia, 2002). Other researchers, while showing that reciprical kindness appears to explain most game behavior, note that the effective of changing the stakes is marginal when compared to the relative percentage offered (Dickenson, 2000).

Bahry, D.L., & Wilson, R.K. (2006). Confusion or fairness in the field? Rejections in the ultimatum game under the strategy method. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 60(1):37-54.
Bazerman, M.H., White, S.B., & Lowenstein, G.F. (1995). Perceptions of fairness in interpersonal and individual choice situations. Current Directions in Psychological Sciences 4(2): 39-43.
Ball, S.B., & Eckel, C.C. (1996). Buying status: Experimental evidence on status in negotiation. Psychology & Marketing 13(4): 381-405.
Bethwaite, J. & Tompkinson, P. (1996). The ultimatum game and non-selfish utility functions. Journal of Economic Psychology 17(2): 259-271.
Bonetti, S. (1998). Experimental economics and deception. Journal of Economic Psychology 19(3): 377-395.
Brandstatter, H., & Konigstein, M. (2001). Personality influences on ultimatum bargainin decisions. European Journal of Personality 15(1): S53-S70.
Buchan, N.R., Croson, R.T.A., Johnson, E.J., & Iacobucci, D. (2004). When do fair beliefs influence bargaining behavior? Experimental bargaining in Japan and the United States.. Journal of Consumer Research 31(1): 181-190.
Calderon, J.P., & Zarama, Roberto. (2006). How Learning Affects the Evolution of Strong Reciprocity. Adaptive Behavior 14(3):211-221.
Camerer, C.F. (2003). Strategizing in the Brain. Science 300(5626): 1673-1675.
Croson, R., Boles, T., & Murnighan, J.K. (2003). Cheap talk in bargaining experiments: Lying and threats in ultimatum games.. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 51(2): 143-159.
Dickenson, D.L. (2000). Ultimatum decision-making: A test of reciprocal kindness. Theory and Decision 48(2): 151-177.
Falk, A. & Fischbacher, U. (2006). A Theory of Reciprocity. Games and Economic Behavior 54(2):293-315.
Fetchenhauer, Detlef & Huang, Xu. Justice sensitivity and distributive decisions in experimental games. Personality and Individual Differences 36(5): 1015-1029.
Gale, J., Binmore, K.G., & Samuelson, L. (1995). Learning to be imperfect: The ultimatum game. Games and Economic Behavior 8(1): 56.90
Gneezy, U., Haruvy, E., & Roth, A.E. (2003). Find More Like ThisBargaining under a deadline: Evidence from the reverse ultimatum game.. Games and Economic Behavior 45(2): 347-368.
Gowdy, J., Iorgulescu, R., & Onyeiwu, S. (2003). Fairness and Retaliation in a Rural Nigerian Village. Social Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 52(4): 469-479.
Guth, W., Huck, S., & Muller, Wieland. (2001). The Relevance of Equal Splits in Ultimatum Games.. Games and Economic Behavior 37(1): 161-169.
Handgraaf, M.J.J., van Dijk, E., Wilke, H.A.M., & Vermunt, R.C. (2003). The salience of a recipient’s alternatives: Inter- and intrapersonal comparison in ultimatum games. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision PRocesses 90(!): 165-177.
Haselhuhn, M.P., & Mellers, B.A. (2005). Emotions and Cooperation in Economic Games. Cognitive Brain Research 23(1): 24-33.
Henrich, J., et al. (2005). ‘Economic man’ in cross-cultural perspective: Behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies.. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(6): 795-855.
Hoffmann, , R. & Tee, J. (2006). Adolescent-adult interactions and culture in the ultimatum game.. Journal of Economic Pscyhology 27(1):98-116.
Humphrey, S.E., Ellis, A.P.J., Conlon, D.E., & Tinsley, C.H. (2004). Understanding Customer Reactions to Brokered Ultimatums: Applying Negotiation and Justice Theory. Journal of Applied Psychology 89(3): 466-482.
Kagel, J.H., Kim, C., & Moser, D. (1996). Fairness in ultimatum games with asymmetric information and asymmetric payoffs. Games and Economic Behavior 13(1): 100-110.
Kay, A.C., Wheeler, S.C., Bargh, J.A., & Ross, L. (2004). Material priming: The influence of mundane physical objects on situational construal and competitive behavioral choice. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 95(1): 83-96.
Ketelaar, T., & Au, W.T. (2003). The effects of feelings of guilt on the behaviour of uncooperative individuals in repeated social bargaining games: An affect-as-information interpretation of the role of emotion in social interaction.. Cognition & Emotion: 17(3): 429-453.
Knez, M.J., & Camerer, C.F. (1995). Outside Options and Social Comparison in Three-Player Ultimatum Game Experiments. Games and Economic Behavior 10(1): 65-94.
Larrick, R.P. & Blount, S. (1997). The claiming effect: Why players are more generous in social dilemmas than in ultimatum games. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72(4): 810-825.
Lusk, J.L., & Hudson, D. (2004). Effect of Monitor-Subject Cheap Talk on Ultimatum Game Offers. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 54(#): 439-443.
Messick, D.M., Moore, D.A., & Bazerman, M.H. (1997). Ultimatum bargaining with a group: Underestimating the importance of the decision rule. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 69(2): 87-101.
Munier, B., & Zaharia, C. (2002). High stakes and acceptance behavior in ultimatum bargaining: A contribution from an international experiment.. Theory and Decision 53(3): 187-207.
Napel, S. (2003). Aspiration Adaption in the Ultimatum Game. Games and Economic Behavior 43(1): 86-106.
Nowak, M.A., Page, K.M., & Sigmund, K. (2000). Fairness versus reason in the ultimatum game. Science 289(5485): 1772-1775.
Robert, C. & Carnevale, P.J. (1997). Group choice in ultimatum bargaining. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 72(2): 256-279.
Ruffle, B.J. (1998). More Is Better, But Fair Is Fair: Tipping in Dictator and Ultimatum Games. Games and Economic Behavior 23(2): 247-265.
Sally, D., & Hill, E. (2006). The development of interpersonal strategy: Autism, theory-of-mind, cooperation and fairness. Journal of Economic Psychology 27(1):73-97.
Solnick, S.J. & Schweitzer, M.E. (1999). The influence of physical attractiveness and gender on ultimatum game decisions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 79(3): 199-215.
Suleiman, R. (1996). Expectations and fairness in a modified Ultimatum game. Journal of Economic Psychology 17(5): 1996.
Sulkin, T., & Simon, A.F. (2002). Habermas in the lab: A study of deliberation in an experimental setting.. Political Psychology 22(4): 809-826.
Takezawa, M., Gummerum, Michaela, & Keller, Monika. (2006). A stage for the rational tail of the emotional dog: Roles of moral reasoning in group decision making.. Journal of Economic Psychology 27(1):117-139.
Oppewal, H., & Tougareva, E. (1992). A three-person ultimatum game to investigate effects of differences in need, sharing rules and observability on bargaining behaviour. Experimental Economics 13(2): 203-213.
van Dijk, E. & Vermunt, Riel. (2000). Strategy and fairness in social decision making: Sometimes it pays to be powerless.. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26(1):1-25.
van ‘t Wout, M., Kahn, R.S., Sanfey, A.G., & Aleman, A. (2005). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex affects strategic decision-making.. Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research 16(16): 1849-1852.
Weg, E., & Smith, V. (1993). On the failure to induce meager offers in ultimatum games. Journal of Economic Psychology 14(1): 17-32.

Learning Evolved, Part IV: Bibliography

The last part of this series is for future reference, and for you to verify the sources I have used. The format is more-or-less APA style, but I make no claims for stylistic competence.

The A’s:

Alford, J. & Hibbing, J. (2004) .The Origin of Politics: An Evolutionary Theory of Political Behavior. Perspectives on Politics, 2(4), 707-723
Alford, J., Funk, C., & Hibbing, J. (2005) Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted? American Political Science Review, 99(2), 154-168.
Alford, J., & Hibbing, J. (2006). The Neural Basis of Representative Democracy. Paper presented at the Hendricks Conference on Biology, Evolution, and Political Behavior.

The B’s through Z’s are below the fold:

Barker, L. (2002). Teaching the Learning Course: Philosophy and Methods, in The Teaching of Psychology: Essays in Honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie and Charles L. Brewer, 379-393.
Biggs, John (1999). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Philadelphia, PA; Open University Press.
Bower, B. (2006). The Bias Finders: A Test of Unconscious Attitudes Polarizes Psychologists. Science News, 169(16), 250.
Boyd, R., Gintis, H., Bowles, S., & Richardson, P. (2003) “The Evolution of Altruistic Punishment,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 18 March 2003, 100(4), 3531-3535.
Bruning, R. (1995). The College Classroom from the Perspective of Cognitive Psychology. Handbook of College Teaching: Theory and Applications.
Buller, D.J. (2005). Adapting Minds. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.
Camerer, C., Loewenstein, G., and Prelec, D. (2005). Neuroeconomics: How Neuroscience Can Inform Economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 43(1), 9-64.
Carmen, I. (2006). Genetic Configurations of Political Phenomena: New Theories, New Methods. Paper presented at the Hendricks Conference on Biology, Evolution, and Political Behavior.
Capsi, A., et al. (2003). Influence of Life Stress on Depression: Moderation by a Polymorphism in the 5-HTT Gene. Science. Vol. 301 No. 5631 pp. 386-289.
Chemers, M., Hu, L., & Garcia, B. (2001). Academic Self-Efficacy and First-Year College Student Performance and Adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 55-64.
Cooper-Clark, D.(1996). A story waiting to be told: Narratives of teaching, scholarship, and theory. In J.K. Roth (Ed.) Inspiring Teaching: Carnegie Professors of the Year Speak. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company, Inc. (pp. 166-175).
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Zak, P. (2006). The Neuroeconomics of Trust. Paper presented at the Hendricks Conference on Biology, Evolution, and Political Behavior.
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Learning Evolved, a companion series to Classroom Democracy
1. Darwinism-Cognitivism
2. Social Motivation
3. Coalitionary Education
4. Bibliography

Variations of the OODA Loop 6, Bibliography

1“Strategy,” U.S. Marine Corps, http://www.smallwarsjournal.com/documents/mcdp1-1.pdf , pg 116

2“Appendix B: Information Operations,” U.S. Navy. In “Small Wars / 21st Century.” http://www.smallwarsjournal.com/documents/swio.pdf pg 1.

3Safranski, Mark. “Media and Strategic Influence.” 24 February 2006. http://council.smallwarsjournal.com/showpost.php?p=1610&p…

4Loyd, Ian V. “Simulating Human Characteristics for Operational Studies.” http://www.dsto.defence.gov.au/publications/1972/DSTO-RR-…

5Algeo, John and Algeo, Adele. American Speech, Vol. 67, No. 1. (Spring, 1992), pp. 83-93. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-1283%28199221%2967%… (88)

6M. L. R. Smith. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 75, No. 1. (Jan., 1999), pp. 77-97. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0020-5850%28199901%2975%…

7 The Historiography of Airpower: Theory and Doctrine. Phillip S. Meilinger. The Journal of Military History, Vol. 64, No. 2. (Apr., 2000), pp. 467-501. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0899-3718%28200004%2964%…

8J. Moffat. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 51, No. 4, Progress in Simulation Research. (Apr., 2000), pp. 431-439. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0160-5682%28200004%2951%…

9Mersten, Gerald. Airborne Battle Management System (ABMS). CCRTS 2000. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2000/CCRTS_Monterey/cd/html… . Pg 3.

10Tomes, Robert R. Boon or Threat? The Information Revolution and U.S. National Security. NWC Review, Summer 2000. http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/review/2000/summer/art2-Su0…

11Shanahan, John N.T. Shock-Based Operations: New Wine in an Old Jar. Air & Space Chronicles – Chronicles Online Journal. 15 October 2001. http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/cc/shana…

12tdaxp, Dan. Time-Shifting the OODA Loop. tdaxp. 29 Juloy 2005. http://www.tdaxp.com/archive/2005/07/29/time-shifting-the…

13Osborne, William B, Bethel, Scott A., Chew, Noel R., Nostrand, Philip M., and Whitehead, YuLin G. Information Operations: A New War-Fighting Capability. August 1996. Chapter 2. http://www.fas.org/spp/military/docops/usaf/2025/v3c2/v3c…

14Vest, Jason. Captured by the One-Eyed Cyclops (I): Vest Report. Defense and the National Interest, 22 March 2002, http://d-n-i.net/fcs/comments/c442.htm

15 F leming, Robert, and Kushner, Cherie. Low-Power, Miniature, Distributed Position Location and Communication Devices Using Ultra-Wideband, Nonsinusoidal Communication Technology. http://www.aetherwire.com/PI_Report_95/pi_rep95.html

16Bass, Tim. Intrusion Detection Systems and Multisensor Data Fusion. Communications of the ACM. Volume 43, Number 4 (2000), Pages 99-105. http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/340000/332079/p99-bass.ht…

17Cheah, Mervyn, Thunholm, Peter, Chew, Lock Pin, Wikberg, Per, Andersson, Jan, and Toorbjorn, Danielsson. C2 Team Collaboration Experiment – A Joint Research by Sweden and Singapore on Teams in a CPoF environment. 10TH INTERNATIONAL COMMAND AND CONTROL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM THE FUTURE OF C2. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2005/10th/CD/papers/283.pdf

18Heinze, Clint, Papesimeon, Michael, and Goss, Simon. Issues in Modelling Sensor and Data Fusion in Agent Based Simulation of Air Operations. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/8886/28115/01257282.pdf?a…

19Heinze, Clinton, Hanlon, Brian, Turner, Michael, Bramley, Kelvin, Rigopoulos, John, Marlow, David, and Bieri, Kurt. The ARTEMIS Air-to-Air Combat Model. http://members.optushome.com.au/cheinze/clint/publication…

20Stromberg, Dan. A Platform-Based Data Fusion and Sensor Management Node. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/8380/26379/01174761.pdf?a…

21Macklin, C, and Dudfield, H. Campaign Assessment Visualisation Techniques for Command Teams. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7502/20413/00942715.pdf?a…

22Waggett, Michael L. Colonel John Boyd – The “Overlooked” but not “Forgotten” Master Strategist. http://www.ndu.edu/nwc/writing/AY04/5602/5602K.pdf

23Ryan, J.S. The Bear and the Water: A Study in Mythological Etymology. Folklore, Vol. 75, No. 4. (Winter, 1964), pp. 260-268. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0015-587X%28196424%2975%…

24Barnett, Thomas. “Director’s Commentary: Chapter One: What the World Needs Now,” in Thomas P.M. Barnett :: Weblog. http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/weblog/archives2/002659.html

25Grant, Tim and Kooter, Bas. Comparing OODA & other models as Operational View C2 Architecture

Topic: C4ISR/C2 Architecture. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2005/10th/CD/papers/196.pdf

26Richards, Chet. “Certain to Win.” http://www.belisarius.com/modern_business_strategy/richar… , March 2005, pg 20, 200.

27Richards, Chet. Riding the Tiger: What You Really Do With OODA Loops. Belisarius. October 2002. http://www.belisarius.com/modern_business_strategy/richar…

28Dickson, Peter Reid. Toward a General Theory of Competitive Rationality. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 56, No. 1. (Jan., 1992), pp. 69-83. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2429%28199201%2956%…

29Cole, Greg, Bulashova, Natasha, and Yurcik, William. Geographical NetFlows Visualization for Network Situaional Awareness: NaukaNet Administrative Data Analysis System (NADAS). http://www.projects.ncassr.org/sift/papers/NADAS.pdf

30Bladon, Peter, Hall, Richard J., and Wright, W. Andy. Situation Assessment Using Grpahical Models, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/7951/21954/01020903.pdf?a… .

31Bowers and Hout. Fast-Cycle Capability for Competitive Power, Harvard Business Review, 66, November-December, 1988 pg 12

32Curts, Raymond J. Avoiding Information Overload Through Understanding of OODA Loops, A Cognitive Hierarchy and Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, http://www.oslerbooks.com/is/pdf/ooda.pdf

33Lui, Frank, an dWatson, Marcus. Cognitive Modelling and Constrained Reasoning for Intelligent Agents. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/8886/28115/01257284.pdf?a…

34Connell, R., and Lui, F. The Mapping of Courses of Action Derived from Cognitive Work Analysis to Agent Behaviors. http://www.agent-software.com.au/shared/resources/papers/…

35Fadok, D.S., Boyd, J., and Warden, J. (1995). Air Power’s Quest for Strategic Paralysis. Maxwell Air Force Base AL: Air University Press, (AD–A291621).

36McCrabb, Martin. Effects-based Coalition Operations: Belief, Framing and Mechanism. http://www.aiai.ed.ac.uk/project/coalition/ksco/ksco-2002…

37Von Lubitz, Dag K. J. E., Carrasco, Benjamin, Levine, Howard, and Richir, Simon. Medical Readiness in the Context of Operations Other Than War: Development of First Responder Readiness Using OODA-Loop Thinking and Advanced Distributed Interactive Simulation Technology. Empispher 2004. http://www.d-n-i.net/fcs/pdf/von_lubitz_1rp_ooda.pdf

38Matthieson, Graham, and Dodd, Lorraine. A Conceptual Model of Organisational and Social Factors in Headquarters. 2004 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2004/ICCRTS_Denmark/CD/pape…

39Beaumont, Patrick. Multi-Platform Coordination and Resource Management in Command and Control. August 2004. http://www.theses.ulaval.ca/2004/21923/21923.pdf . Pg 7.

40tdaxp, Dan. “OODA Loop as Flowchart, Try 2.” tdaxp. 20 July 2006. http://www.tdaxp.com/archive/2005/07/20/ooda-loop-as-flow…

41tdaxp, Dan. “OODA-PISRR, Part I: The Social Cognition Loop.” tdaxp. 13 February 2006. http://www.tdaxp.com/archive/2006/02/13/ooda-pisrr-part-i…

42Younghusband. “Truly Formless 5GW.” Coming Anarchy. 10 March 2006. http://www.cominganarchy.com/archives/2006/03/10/truly-fo…

43Bridges, Karl. Boyd Cycle Theory in the Context of Non-Cooperative Games: Implications for Libraries. Literary Philosophy and Practice Vol 6, No 2, Spring 2004, http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/bridges2.htm

44Thompson, Fred. The Boyd Cycle and Business Strategy. From Proceedings of the Aomori-Atkinson Conference. Aomori Public College, Aomori, Japan, May 23-June 5 1993. http://www.belisarius.com/modern_business_strategy/thomps…

45Hazen, Mark G. and Fewell, Matthew. Modelling Decision Making to Support NetCentric Warfare Experimentation. 9th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2004/ICCRTS_Denmark/CD/pape…

46De Vin, Leo J, Andler, Sten F., Ng, Amos H.C., Moore, Philip R., Pu, Junsheng, and Wong, Bill C-B, Information Fusion: What can the Manufacturing Sector Learn from the Defense Industry?, http://www.his.se/upload/26873/devin05defence.pdf

47Blasche, E, and Plano, S. “JDL Level 5 fusion model: user refinement issues and applications in group tracking,” SPIE Vol 4729, Aerosense, 2002, pp. 270 – 279. http://members.tripod.com/erikblasch/UserRefineGroupTrack…

48tdaxp, Dan. OODA-PISRR, Part II: The PISRR Cognition Loop. 14 February 2006. http://www.tdaxp.com/archive/2006/02/14/ooda-pisrr-part-i…

49tdaxp, Dan. OODA-PISRR, Part IV: System Pertubations. tdaxp 20 February 2006. http://www.tdaxp.com/archive/2006/02/20/ooda-pisrr-part-i…

50Duffy, LorRaine, Bordetsky, Alex, Bach, Eric, Blazevich, Ryan, and Oros, Carl. A Model of Tactical Battle Rhythm. 2004 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2004/CCRTS_San_Diego/CD/pap…

51Breton, R., and Bossé. E. (2002). The cognitive costs and benefits of automation. Paper presented at NATO RTO-HFM Symposium: The role of humans in intelligent and automated systems, Warsaw, Poland, 7-9 October 2002.

52Rousseau, Robert, and Breton, Richard. The M-OODA: A Model Incorporating Control Functions And Teamwork In The OODA Loop. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2004/CCRTS_San_Diego/CD/pap…

53Breton, Richard, and Roussea, Robert. The C-OODA: A Cognitive Version of the OODA Loop to Represent C2 Activities. 10th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2005/10th/CD/papers/280.pdf

54Brehmer, Berndt. The Dynamic OODA Loop: Amalgamating Boyd’s OODA Loop and the

Cybernetic Approach to Command and Control. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2005/10th/CD/papers/365.pdf

55Stromberg, Dan, and Lantz, Fredrik, “Operator Control of Shared Resources in Sensor Networks,” http://0-ieeexplore.ieee.org.library.unl.edu/iel5/8886/28…

56Bryant, David. Modernizing Our Cognitive Model. http://www.dodccrp.org/events/2004/CCRTS_San_Diego/CD/pap… .

57Janlov, Matti, Salonen, Tiia, Seppanen, Hamnes, andVirrantaus, Kirsi. Developing Military Situation Picture by Spatial Analysis and Visualization. Proceedings, ScanGIS’2005, http://www.scangis.org/scangis2005/papers/janlov.pdf .

58Boehm, Barry, and Turner, Richard. Teaching the Elephant to Dance: Agility Meets Systems of Systems Engineering and Acquisition, 3 March 2005, http://sunset.usc.edu/events/2005/arr/proceedings/present…

Ehresman, Kenneth L., and Frantzen, Joey L. Electronic Maneuvering Board and Dead Reckoning Tracer Decision Aid for the Officer of the Deck, http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/510000/507588/p61-ehresma…

59 Electronic Maneuvering Board and Dead Reckoning Tracer Decision Aid for the Officer of the Deck
Frantzen, Joey L; Ehresman, Kenneth L

Perspectives and Peers 7, Bibliography

Note: This is a selection from Perspectives and Peers, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06

Below is the reference list of works cited in this series.

Allen, J.P., Porter, M.R., McFarland, F.C., Marsh, P., McElhaney, K.B. (2005). The Two Faces of Adolescents’ Success with Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaption, and Deviant Behavior. Child Development 76, 747-760.

Driver, R., Asoko, H., Leach, H., Mortimer, E., & Scott, P. (1994). Constructing Scientific Knowledge in the Classroom. Educational Researcher 23, 5-12.

Elkind, David. (1998). All Grown Up and No Place to Go: Teenagers in Crisis (revised ed.).Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Frank, W., Schülert, J., & Nicholas, H. (1992). Interdisciplinary Learning as Social Learning and General Education. European Journal of Education 27, 223-237.

Hursh, B. A. & Borzak, L. (1979). Toward Cognitive Development through Field Studies. The Journal of Higher Education 50, 63-78.

M.S., Personal Communication, March 28-30, 2006.

Maalouf, Amin. (2003). In the Name of Identity: Violence and the Need to Belong (reprint edition). New York, NY: Penguin Group.

Moshman, David. (2005). Adolescent Psychological Development (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schwartz, Daniel L. (1995). The Emergence of Abstract Representations in Dyad Problem Solving. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 4, 321-354.

Schulman, L.S., & Carey, N.B. (1984). Psychology and the Limitations of Individual Rationality: Implications for the Study of Reasoning and Civility. Review of Education Research 54, 501-524.

Steinberg, L., & Morris, A.S. (2001). Adolescent Development. Annual Review of Psychology: 2001 52, 83-110.
von Glasersfeld, E. (1995). A Constructivist Approach to Teaching. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Perspectives and Peers, a tdaxp series:
Perspectives and Peers 1. Introduction
Perspectives and Peers 2. Books Assigned in Class
Perspectives and Peers 3. Articles Assigned in Class
Perspectives and Peers 4. Other Articles
Perspectives and Peers 5. Interview with the Subject
Perspectives and Peers 6. Conclusion
Perspectives and Peers 7. Bibliography
Perspectives and Peers 8. Interview with Mark Safranski

Redefining the Gap 12, Bibliography

Note: This is a selection from Redefining the Gap, part of tdaxp‘s SummerBlog ’06


Below is the bibliography for this project. Many of the documents cited can be obtained from JSTOR.

Agnew, John A. 1995. Mastering Space. New York: Routledge.

Ansah, Esi E. 2002. Theorizing the Brain Drain. African Issues 30: 21-24.

Ansley, Fran. 2001. Inclusive Boundaries and Other (Im)possible Paths toward Community Development in a Global World. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 150: 353-417.

Baker, Raymond. 1995. Combative Cultural Politics: Film Art and Political Spaces in Egypt. Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics 15: 6-38.

Barnett, Clive. 1995. Awakening the Dead: Who Needs the History of Geography?. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20: 417-419.

Barnett, Thomas P.M. 2003. The Pentagon’s New Map: It Explains Why We’re Going to War, and Why We’ll Keep going to War. Esquire. Stable URL: http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/published/pentagonsnewmap.htm.

Barnett, Thomas P.M. 2004. The Pentagon’s New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Barnett, Thomas P.M. 2005. Glossary. The Newsletter from Thomas P.M. Barnett 1.13. Stable URL: http://www.thomaspmbarnett.com/journals/barnett_1aug2005.doc.

Barnett, Thomas P.M. 2006. Blueprint for Action: A Future Worth Creating. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Barone, Michael. 2005, August 27. Fall Reading. U.S. News & World Report. Stable URL: http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/baroneblog/columns/barone_050827a.htm.

Beckstrom, John H. 1974. Handicaps of Legal-Social Engineering in a Developing Nation. The American Journal of Comparative Law 22: 697-712.

Broad, Robin, and Cavanagh, John. 1995-1996. Don’t Neglect the Impoverished South. Foreign Policy 101. 18-35.
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Redefining the Gap, a tdaxp series:
Redefining the Gap 1. Prologue
Redefining the Gap 2. Summary
Redefining the Gap 3. Introduction to Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 4. First Geopolitical Theories
Redefining the Gap 5. The North and the South
Redefining the Gap 6. Critical Geopolitics
Redefining the Gap 7. The Pentagon’s New Map
Redefining the Gap 8. The Research Design
Redefining the Gap 9. Methods and Operationalizations
Redefining the Gap 10. Limitations and Conclusion
Redefining the Gap 11. Results
Redefining the Gap 12. Bibliography
Redefining the Gap 13. Appendix: Computer Code
Redefining the Gap 14. Appendix: National Codes

Miniature Political Science Literature Review and Research Design

After last’s semester International Politics class, I posted my literature review on geographical position and post-Communism. In a similar manner, I now post my preliminary lit review and research design for Geopolitics and IGOs.

While the text won’t be too important to anyone, I know at least one student who learned about journal articles from my last bibliography of a political science literature review, so I have included that below.

The weakest part of the research design — I realized I didn’t correctly operationalize my variables as I was handing it on. While it was graded, it was only a preliminary draft, so take it with a grain of salt.

Handed in, the paper was 10 pages, six of which were works cited.

Preliminary Literature Review and Research Design

Mackinder said, “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island.” Spykman Geopolitics is full of dicta, but such statements are unscientific unless they can be tested. This study will use intergovernmental organization (IGO) membership to determine the formal political connections between states, and test whether either of the above two geopolitical statements hold up to scientific scrutiny.

Geopolitical questions have been hampered by normative accusations. Charges of imperialism abound (Semmel 1958, Kearns 1999). Likewise its supposed use to denigrate certain nationalities (Gilbert and Parker 1969). Or more generally, “geopolitical discourse” is accused of being “political from the very outset” (Otuathail 1998). The critics of geopolitics sometimes associate it with racism and eugenics (Tyner 1999).

Yet geopolitics helped make geography a science by focusing it on the geographical dimensions of political science (Unstead 1949). Specifically, geopolitics helped explain human affairs (Dawson 1987). The geopolitician Halford Mackinder described his goal as not “to predict a great future for this or that country, but to make a geographical formula into which you could fit any political balance.” (Hall 1955). Indeed, geopolitical analysis has survived changing constellations of great powers and technologies (Hooson 1962). Stable geopolitical concepts have emerged, even as geopolitical scientists disagree as to the exact nature of their relation (Harkavy 2001). Geography is a “conditioning factor” in many parts of politics (Spkyman 1938). The internal (Williams 1927) and external (Enterline 1998) nature of states are effected by geopolitical position, including in areas as serious as war (Midlarsky 1995).

A geopolitical explanation for international governmental organization building would not discredit, but would merely extend, existing explanations. Indeed, the “appearance of objectivity, rationality, and universality” [can underpin IGO’s] power and utility” (Picciotto 1999), so a function in one dimension for an IGO can underpin its function in another. For instance, take four major theories of integration: domestic politics, neofunctionalism, intergovernmentalism, and supranationalism (Corbey 1995). Domestic political perspectives range from claims that domestic politics leave open certain choices to arguing that nearly all foreign policy actions are reflections of internal politics (Lumsdaine 1996). Neo-functionalism “stresses the individual motives of actors,” which may accidentally lead to a “new central authority” because of a series of small steps (Haas 1970). Intergovernmentalism is similar, arguing that governments pursue their best interests, except that intergovernmentalism stresses the importance of treaties themselves while neo-functionalism holds that “treaty revisions invariable spark ‘spillovers’ that empower actors and generate policy dynamics that were unintended by the governments that signed them” (Garrett and Tsebelis 1996). Supranationalism may be summarized by saying that international organizations can themselves become “pro-integration, supranational entrepreneurs that stretch their authority as far as they can to further their own agendas” (Tsebelis and Garregt 2001).

Geopolitics does not refute any of these theories, but gives them flesh by allowing them to operate in a broader world. Private sector companies can push for, and get, their states to pursue geographic and geostrategic objectives (Hunter 2001). This can be indirect and aggregate (Pollack 1997), changing the nature of choices available to actors (Ruggie 1993) and thus are domestic political. Neofunctionalism clearly draws strength from geostrategic concerns, as one summary of neofunctionalism itself might be “the best way to reach peace is by establishing effective regional institutions” (Miller 2005). Intergovernmental, that is to say between state, politics often is informed by geostrategic views in the Caribbean (Griffith 1995), Central Asia (Khidirbekughli 2003), and Europe (Walters 2004). Likewise, one of the most powerful international governmental organizations, the European Union, is a supranational entity with strong geographic elements (Wood 2004).

It is possible that the enumeration strategy of this paper is misleading. The most powerful international organizations can sometimes have short life cycles (Dickenson 1920). The existence of international organizations can be deceptive, if it is not representative of some underlying regime (Haas 1983). Likewise, the number of international organizations has at times rapidly increased (Alger 1970), making analysis more difficult. In addition, it has often been difficult to even compile accurate lists of what international organizations exist, or of their membership (Wallace and Singer 1970). In short, this study may lack validity if membership in international organization is of questionable relevance to real power structures.

The thesis for this study is that states in the European Rimland are more likely to be in IGOs with states in the Heartland than with other states in the Rimland. The independent variable is the geostrategic nature of a state. For this study, geostrategic position is a categorical variable with two possible values: a state can be heartland, Rimland. States fitting neither value are outside the scope of this paper. Heartland is defined as those states who lay predominately east of the Elbe (Hooson 1962, Treivish 2005). For each, state there will be two dependent variables, both based on IGO membership. The first dependent variable will be the number of IGO-state relations if has with Rimland countries, the other will be the number of IGO-state relations it has with heartland countries.

This will be a quantitative study that uses information from the Yearbook of International Organizations, published by the Union of International Associations. The Yearbook has been used for intergovernmental organization membership questions (Barnett and Finnemore 2004, Willets 2001) before either directly (Onea and Russett 1999) or after modification (Shanks, Jacobsen, and Kaplan 1996). The Yearbook is publicly available for a fee (UIA 2006). It contains information on both IGOs created by governments and IGOs that are created by other IGOs.


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Conclusion and Bibliography for Example Political Science Literature Review & Research Design

Note: This is part of an example political science literature review and research design. An abstract and table of contents are also available.


Democracy and economic development are vital to states, and geography doubtless is a factor. Regardless of its results, this study should be hopeful in determining how great a factor it is. Whatever the outcome, geographic effects and the cultural aspects they engender should always be considered to be conditioners, not determinants. Writing in 1951, Scalapino looked skeptically on political development for Asia

Nowhere in Asia, including Japan, has democracy yet demonstrated its capacity to survive an develop. In the absense of this demonstration, Communism, among all the authoritarian creeds, has recently shown the greatest dynamism and strength.

We live in a world where Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India are stable democracies, many other states have fledgling democracies, and even the “Communist” republics of China and Vietnam have abandoned the idea of economic communism as a creed of dynamism and strength.

If this study does not show a strong correlation between access to the sea and development, we will be more likely to believe that human ingenuity trumps democracy. But a positive outcome for this study does not consign landlocked states and underdevelopment and autocracy, any more than Scalapino’s observed trends condemned Asia to authoritarianism and communism.


Bartlett, David and Seleny, Anna. “The Political Enforcement of Liberalism: Bargaining, Institutions, and Auto Multinationals in Hungary.” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 2. (Jun., 1998), pp. 319-338. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0020-8833%28199806%2942%3A2%3C319%3ATPEOLB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-%23

Dahlberg, Kenneth A. “Contextual Analysis: Taking Space, Time, and Place Seriously.” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Sep., 1983), pp. 257-266. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0020-8833%28198309%2927%3A3%3C257%3ACATSTA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R

Duch, Raymond, M. “Economic Chaos and the Fragility of Democratic Transition in Former Communist Regimes.” The Journal of Politics, Vol. 57, No. 1. (Feb., 1995), pp. 121-158. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3816%28199502%2957%3A1%3C121%3AECATFO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5

Enterline, A. J. “Regime Changes, Neighborhoods, and Interstate Conflict, 1816-1992.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 42, No. 6 (Dec., 1998), pp. 804-829. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0027%28199812%2942%3A6%3C804%3ARCNAIC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y

Hausmann, Ricardo. “Prisoners of Geography.” Foreign Policy, No. 122 (Jan., 2001), pp. 44-53. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0015-7228%28200101%2F02%290%3A122%3C44%3APOG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-H

Huang, Yasheng. “Why China Will Not Collapse.” Foreign Policy, No. 99. (Summer, 1995), pp. 54-68. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0015-7228%28199522%290%3A99%3C54%3AWCWNC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3

Ishiyama, John T. “Communist Parties in Transition: Structures, Leaders, and Processes of Democratization in Eastern Europe.” Comparative Politics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Jan., 1995), pp. 147-166. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0010-4159%28199501%2927%3A2%3C147%3ACPITSL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

Janos, Andrew C. “Social Science, Communism, and the Dynamics of Political Change.” World Politics, Vol. 44, No. 1. (Oct., 1991), pp. 81-112. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-8871%28199110%2944%3A1%3C81%3ASSCATD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V

Jennings, M. Kent. “Political Participation in the Chinese Countryside.” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 91, No. 2. (Jun., 1997), pp. 361-372. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28199706%2991%3A2%3C361%3APPITCC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M

King, Charles. “Beyond Bosnia: Contextualizing the Politics of Southeastern Europe.” PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 30, No. 3. (Sep., 1997), pp. 507-510. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1049-0965%28199709%2930%3A3%3C507%3ABBCTPO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N

Lewthwaite, Gordon R. “Environmentalism and Determinism: A Search for Clarification.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 56, No. 1 (Mar., 1966), pp. 1-23. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0004-5608%28196603%2956%3A1%3C1%3AEADASF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-3

Liu, Alex. “Index Correlation, Measurement Reliability and Biased Estimation.” R M Application Papers. (Downloaded 13 December 2005). Stable URL: http://www.researchmethods.org/democracy-indicators.pdf.

Madison, James. “Federalist No. 10: “The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection.” New York Daily Advertiser, (November 22, 1787). Stable URL: http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=10&page=transcript

Menon, Rajan. “In the Shadow of the Bear: Security in Post-Soviet Central Asia.” International Security, Vol. 20, No. 1. (Summer, 1995), pp. 149-181. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0162-2889%28199522%2920%3A1%3C149%3AITSOTB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-I

Midlarsky, Manu I. “Environmental Influences on Democracy: Aridity, Warfare, and a Reversal of the Causal Arrow.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Jun., 1995), pp. 224-262. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0027%28199506%2939%3A2%3C224%3AEIODAW%3E2.0.CO%3B2-2

Mishler, William and Rose, Richard. “Support for Parliaments and Regimes in the Transition toward Democracy in Eastern Europe.” Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 5-32. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0362-9805%28199402%2919%3A1%3C5%3ASFPARI%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J

Powers, Denise V. and Cox, James H. “Echoes from the Past: The Relationship between Satisfaction with Economic Reforms and Voting Behavior in Poland.” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 91, No. 3. (Sep., 1997), pp. 617-633. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28199709%2991%3A3%3C617%3AEFTPTR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Z

Scalapino, Robert A. “Democracy in Asia: Past and Future. Far Eastern Survey.” Vol. 20, No. 6. (Mar. 21, 1951), pp. 53-57. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0362-8949%2819510321%2920%3A6%3C53%3ADIAPAF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P

Sprout, Harold. “Geopolitical Hypotheses in Technological Perspective. World Politics.” Vol. 15, No. 2 (Jan., 1963), pp. 187-212. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-8871%28196301%2915%3A2%3C187%3AGHITP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R

Starr and Most. “A Return Journey: Richardson, “Frontiers” and Wars in the 1946-1965 Era.” Vol. 22, No. 3 (Sept., 1978), pp. 441-467. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0027%28197809%2922%3A3%3C441%3AARJR%22A%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7

Spkyman, Nicholar J. “Geography and Foreign Policy, I.” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Feb., 1938), pp. 28-50. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0554%28193802%2932%3A1%3C28%3AGAFPI%3E2.0.CO%3B2

Teune, Henry. “Local Government and Democratic Political Development.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 540, Local Governance around the World. (Jul., 1995), pp. 11-23. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7162%28199507%29540%3C11%3ALGADPD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V

Williams, Whiting. “Geographic Determinism in Nicaragua.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 132, Some Outstanding Problems of American Foreign Policy (Jul., 1927), pp. 142-145. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7162%28192707%29132%3C142%3AGDIN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P


Note: This is an excerpt from a draft of my thesis, A Computer Model of National Behavior. The introduction and table of contents
are also available


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